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We looked for evidence that antibiotics that are swallowed can treat Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in people with cystic fibrosis.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

We reviewed the evidence about the effect of vaccinating people with cystic fibrosis to prevent infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

We reviewed the evidence about the effect of testing antibiotics in combination for acute airway infections in people with long‐term (chronic) infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

Cystic fibrosis is an inherited condition where the airways often become blocked with mucus. It is associated with chest infections, which can lead to progressive breathing failure and death. A germ called Pseudomonas aeruginosa is often the cause of infection and is difficult to treat successfully, once infection has become established.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: April 25, 2017

We reviewed the evidence about the different effects of using a single intravenous (given directly into a vein) antibiotic compared to using a combination of intravenous antibiotics in people with cystic fibrosis infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

We reviewed the evidence about the effects of vaccinating children with cystic fibrosis with palivizumab to prevent respiratory syncytial virus.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

We reviewed the evidence about whether to use samples obtained by bronchoscopy when deciding how to treat lung infections in people with cystic fibrosis.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Cystic fibrosis is a serious genetic disorder that results in abnormal mucus in several parts of the body. In the lungs the abnormal mucus is linked to the likelihood of repeated infection. A pulmonary exacerbation is when symptoms become more severe, mostly due to more worsening infection. Antibiotics are an essential part of treatment and may be given in different ways, one of these is by inhaling the drug. We wanted to learn if this type of treatment improved general health and which method of giving antibiotics was best. We found there have been only six trials with a total of 208 people which compared inhaled antibiotics to intravenous antibiotics for treating pulmonary exacerbations in cystic fibrosis. The results of these trials did not allow us to answer our question. We are not able to show from these trials if inhaled antibiotics are useful for treating pulmonary exacerbations.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

People with cystic fibrosis suffer from chest infections, often caused by the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This bacteria is resistant to nearly all antibiotics that can be taken by mouth. Macrolide antibiotics, e.g. azithromycin, have no direct killing effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but they may reduce the activity of these bacteria. We have included ten randomised controlled trials with a total of 959 participants in this review. Eight of these trials compared azithromycin (a macrolide antibiotic) to placebo and two compared different doses of azithromycin. Four trials in children and adults (549 participants) showed significant improvements in lung function after treatment with azithromycin compared to placebo at six months; although data from later time points are not so clear. Patients treated with azithromycin were about twice as likely to be free of pulmonary exacerbation; needed fewer oral antibiotics and had fewer instances of Staphylococcus aureus in cultures from their lungs and airways. Adverse events were not common and not obviously associated with azithromycin, although there was an increase in resistance to macrolides. Most studies used a three times a week dosing schedule. Taking a high weekly dose was linked to an increase in mild gastrointestinal adverse events. Further multicentre studies are needed to look at the long‐term effects of this antibiotic treatment, especially for infants diagnosed through newborn screening.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

We reviewed evidence to see whether it is better to test antibiotics on Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria (bugs) grown in a layer of slime (a biofilm) or on those grown in liquid, when deciding which antibiotics to use for treating a flare up of symptoms in people with cystic fibrosis. We wanted to know if either method would lead to better antibiotic choices with better clinical outcomes.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease which results in abnormal mucus in several parts of the body. The main organ affected is the lungs which are susceptible to infection by certain bacteria, the most frequently isolated being Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Infection causes inflammation that results in progressive damage to the lungs. We aimed to find out if inhaling antibiotics would reduce the effects of infection. We wanted to learn whether this treatment would improve lung function, quality of life and survival. We also looked for any adverse events. This review includes 19 trials with 1724 people. We found that inhaling an antibiotic to fight these bacteria improved lung function during the study and reduced frequency of exacerbations. However, there was more resistance to antibiotics, tinnitus and change in voice in the treatment groups. Further research is needed to show whether the benefits can be maintained in the long‐term and to work out the best antibiotic to use and at what dose.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Study found that both colistimethate sodium dry powder for inhalation (DPI) and tobramycin DPI were non-inferior to nebulised tobramycin for the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in cystic fibrosis, and their cost-effectiveness was uncertain.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: December 2013

Chronic infection of the airways by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in people with cystic fibrosis is associated with deterioration in respiratory function. Intravenous antibiotics are the standard therapy for pulmonary exacerbations caused by this micro‐organism. Many centres advocate the use of elective (regular) three‐monthly antibiotics to reduce the frequency of exacerbations and therefore slow the deterioration of lung function. Alternatively, intravenous antibiotics are only prescribed when symptoms indicate. Elective therapy may encourage multi‐resistance to antibiotics. This review aimed to identify randomised and quasi‐randomised controlled trials that evaluated the results of the two different approaches. No clear conclusions were identified. This review will no longer be regularly updated. Searches will still be undertaken on a two‐yearly basis by the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis & Genetic Disorders Group. If, in future, relevant trials are identified, the review will be updated again.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

Cancer patients develop neutropenia, a decrease in the neutrophil subset of the white blood cells, as a result of chemotherapy. Neutropenia exposes patients to infections, mainly bacterial. Without antibiotic treatment these infections may be fatal, therefore antibiotic treatment is administered when a patient with neutropenia develops fever. The objective of this review was to compare antibiotic treatments currently recommended in consensus guidelines for the initial treatment of cancer patients with fever and neutropenia.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

We looked for evidence to show the differences between giving intravenous antibiotics once daily compared to giving them several times a day when treating flare ups of disease (pulmonary exacerbations) in people with cystic fibrosis. This is an update of an earlier review.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: March 27, 2017

Plain language summary pending.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

This review concluded that inhaled tobramycin (powder or solution), colistin and aztreonam lysine were comparable in their effectiveness for treating chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in people with cystic fibrosis. The limitations of the review, uncertainty around trial quality, and the small number of trials informing the network meta-analysis, means the conclusions should be treated with caution.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited condition characterised by the abnormal transport of chloride ions across transporting epithelia. This leads to the production of thick sticky mucus in the lungs, pancreas, liver, intestine and reproductive tract, and an increase in the salt content in sweat. Among other problems, people with CF experience recurrent respiratory infections and have difficulties digesting food. CF affects over 9000 individuals in the UK. CF shortens life expectancy and adversely affects quality of life. In 2010, CF was recorded as the cause of 103 deaths in England and Wales.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

We reviewed the evidence about the benefits and adverse effects of giving regular antibiotics to people with cystic fibrosis to prevent infection with a germ called Staphylococcus aureus.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: April 18, 2017

INTRODUCTION: Inhaled antibiotics are probably the safest and most effective therapy for Pseudomonas aeruginosa chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

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