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Malaria is a parasitic disease spread by mosquitoes. It affects millions of people worldwide and causes significant illness and mortality. Uncomplicated malaria presents with symptoms such as fever, headache, muscle pain, and vomiting, and children commonly present with rapid breathing, cough, and convulsions. Severe malaria causes unconsciousness and death. Vaccines are widely considered a necessary component for the complete success of malaria control. The parasite moves through several life‐cycle stages in the human body, during which its molecular makeup changes, at least partially. Vaccines specific for each stage (ie targeting different antigens) are under development. This review looked at vaccinations targeted at the asexual (blood) phase of the parasite's life, when the parasites are in red blood cells. One vaccine for this phase, MSP/RESA (also known as Combination B), has been tested in field trials in Papua New Guinea. It reduced the density of parasites in the blood, but it did not prevent malaria attacks. Blood‐stage vaccines are being actively pursued in further research.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: October 18, 2006

This review summarises trials evaluating the accuracy of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for diagnosing malaria due to Plasmodium vivax or other non‐falciparum species. After searching for relevant studies up to December 2013, we included 47 studies, enrolling 22,862 adults and children.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: December 18, 2014

The SPf66 vaccine was one of the first malaria vaccines to be tested extensively in endemic areas. SPf66 is a synthetic peptide vaccine containing antigens from the blood stages of malaria linked together with an antigen from the sporozoite stage. SPf66 has had 10 trials in Africa, Asia, and South America. Results were initially promising, but further trials showed only a small effect in some trials, and no effect in Africa. There is no evidence that SPf66 is effective enough to be introduced on a routine basis for prevention of malaria.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: April 19, 2006

Malaria is a parasitic disease spread by mosquitoes. It affects millions of people worldwide and causes significant illness and mortality. The symptoms of uncomplicated malaria include fever, headache, muscle pain, and vomiting; and children commonly present also with rapid breathing, cough, and convulsions. Severe malaria leads to unconsciousness and death. Uncomplicated malaria can almost always be cured with appropriate drugs, given soon after symptoms appear, but in small children in particular, progression and death can come within 48 hours. The hope − bolstered by several decades of increasingly promising research − remains that one or more vaccines to prevent malaria will augment the existing malaria control tools. The expectation is that successful vaccines will decrease malaria incidence, but because of the complexity of the organism and other factors, protection will not be complete. The malaria parasite develops through several phases in the human body that evoke different immunologic responses, and vaccines for all phases are under development. This review looks at vaccines targeted at the 'pre‐erythrocytic' phase of the parasite's life, the phase before the parasites first enter the bloodstream from the liver. Trials of four types of vaccine against P. falciparum, the most important human malaria species, were available for this review. One of these (the RTS,S vaccine) significantly reduced the number of episodes of clinical malaria and severe malaria in children, while the other three vaccines were not effective under the conditions of the trials. No severe adverse events observed following the RTS,S vaccination were judged to be related to vaccination, though minor adverse events like headache, swelling, and malaise were.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: October 18, 2006

The original antenatal care guideline was published by NICE in 2003. Since then a number of important pieces of evidence have become available, particularly concerning gestational diabetes, haemoglobinopathy and ultrasound, so that the update was initiated. This update has also provided an opportunity to look at a number of aspects of antenatal care: the development of a method to assess women for whom additional care is necessary (the ‘antenatal assessment tool’), information giving to women, lifestyle (vitamin D supplementation, alcohol consumption), screening for the baby (use of ultrasound for gestational age assessment and screening for fetal abnormalities, methods for determining normal fetal growth, placenta praevia), and screening for the mother (haemoglobinopathy screening, gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia and preterm labour, chlamydia).

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: March 2008

Malaria case management, which consists of prompt diagnosis and effective treatment, remains a vital component of malaria control and elimination strategies. This third edition of the WHO Guidelines for the treatment of malaria contains updated recommendations based on new evidence as well as a recommendation on the use of drugs to prevent malaria in high-risk groups.

World Health Organization.

Version: 2015

BACKGROUND: During pregnancy, malaria infection with Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax is related to adverse maternal health and poor birth outcomes. Diagnosis of malaria, during pregnancy, is complicated by the absence or low parasite densities in peripheral blood. Diagnostic methods, other than microscopy, are needed for detection of placental malaria. Therefore, the diagnostic accuracy of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), detecting antigen, and molecular techniques (PCR), detecting DNA, for the diagnosis of Plasmodium infections in pregnancy was systematically reviewed.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2011

These guidelines provide guidance on the diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection and the care of people living with HIV. They are structured along the continuum of HIV testing, prevention, treatment and care.

World Health Organization.

Version: 2016

Multiplex testing in suspected infectious gastroenteritis has uncertain clinical value: testing generally identifies pathogens identified by conventional testing but also additional positive results of uncertain clinical importance.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: April 2017

BACKGROUND: The Parasight-F test is a device for the rapid diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. In a number of field studies rather wide disparities in the performance of the test have been reported. To provide an evaluation of the quality of available reports and an overall summary of diagnostic accuracy of the Parasight-F test, we have performed a systematic review.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2004

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and review the literature surrounding the potential protective benefit of tetracyclines, particularly doxycycline, in reducing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) acquisition.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

When young children suddenly experience the onset of diarrhoea, with or without vomiting, infective gastroenteritis is by far the most common explanation. A range of enteric viruses, bacteria and protozoal pathogens may be responsible. Viral infections account for most cases in the developed world. Gastroenteritis is very common, with many infants and young children experiencing more than one episode in a year.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: April 2009

This guidance provides a summary of the clinical features associated with maltreatment (alerting features) that may be observed when a child presents to healthcare professionals. Its purpose is to raise awareness and help healthcare professionals who are not specialists in child protection to identify children who may be being maltreated. It does not give healthcare professionals recommendations on how to diagnose, confirm or disprove child maltreatment.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: July 2009

Expert-reviewed information summary about constipation, impaction, bowel obstruction, and diarrhea as complications of cancer or its treatment. The management of these problems is discussed.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: May 10, 2017

Amoebic colitis is caused by the parasite Entamoeba histolytica. This protozoan is distributed throughout the world and is commonly acquired by ingestion of contaminated food or water. It is estimated that about 40 to 50 million people infected with E. histolytica develop amoebic colitis or extraintestinal abscesses, which result in up to 100,000 deaths per year.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: April 15, 2009

This guideline has been developed to advise on the treatment and management of psychosis and schizophrenia in adults. The guideline recommendations have been developed by a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, people with psychosis and schizophrenia, their carers and guideline methodologists after careful consideration of the best available evidence. It is intended that the guideline will be useful to clinicians and service commissioners in providing and planning highquality care for people with psychosis and schizophrenia while also emphasising the importance of the experience of care for people with psychosis and schizophrenia and their carers.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).

Version: 2014

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