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Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is rarely used for the treatment of dementia but has been studied in a number of randomized controlled trials. Although the available data suggests TENS may be beneficial for some neuropsychological and/or behavioural aspects of dementia insufficient data was available to these reviewers for definitive conclusions to be drawn.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

The efficacy of nimodipine, a calcium channel blocker, has been tested in randomized controlled trials for the treatment of dementia, particularly Alzheimer's disease and multiinfarct dementia, the commonest forms of dementia in older people. The rationale for its use is to restrict the influx of calcium ions into neurons, and, by vasodilatation, to improve blood flow to the brain. This review found evidence of some short‐term benefit attributable to nimodipine, mainly in measures of cognitive function and global impression, but not in activities on daily living, for patients with degenerative and multiinfarct dementia, and mixed dementia. Nimodipine is well tolerated with a low rate of adverse effects similar to that associated with placebo.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

The efficacy of galantamine has been tested in two randomised controlled trials for the treatment of vascular dementia and for a mixed population of Alzheimer's disease patients with evidence of cerebrovascular disease on scanning. The rationale behind its use is to correct the cholinergic deficit seen in vascular dementia. This review found evidence of benefit for galantamine compared with placebo in measures of cognition in both studies. Both studies indicated higher rates of nausea and vomiting in patients taking galantamine compared with placebo.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Vascular dementia (i.e. dementia caused by disease of blood vessels affecting the supply of blood to the brain) is one of the most common types of dementia. It includes dementia caused by stroke. It may exist by itself or with other common dementias such as Alzheimer's disease. Sometimes vascular disease can present with cognitive problems which are less severe than dementia. Those with vascular dementia may have significant cognitive impairment without major memory loss. The term vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is useful, because of the range of different ways in which people are affected. Rivastigmine is a drug widely used in Alzheimer's disease (AD). It works by preventing breakdown of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter (signalling molecule). Levels of acetylcholine are reduced in VCI as well as in AD and so it may also help people with VCI. Researchers searched for all trials that compared rivastigmine with placebo in people with VCI, and identified three. Only one of these showed any significant results, and it did show some benefit for people with VCI who took rivastigmine. However, nausea and vomiting were a frequent side effect of taking the drug. Therefore it remains uncertain how useful rivastigmine is for people with VCI .

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

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