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Anaesthetic drugs for cardioversion

Electrical cardioversion is a procedure by which pads on the chest aim to return the heart to a normal rhythm following disturbances. This procedure is painful and can be distressing for the patient; therefore drugs are used to make patients unaware of the procedure. We aimed to compare the safety and effectiveness of the drugs used in electrical cardioversion.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Comparison of propofol (an anaesthetic drug) with other drug options for sedating people undergoing painful procedures in emergency departments

Propofol is a drug frequently used as a general anaesthetic to sedate (calm) people for surgery in the operating theatre. It is administered into a vein. There is increasing evidence that propofol can be used outside of the operating theatre to sedate people undergoing painful procedures (e.g. when relocating a joint that is out of its normal position because of an injury) in the emergency department (ED) setting.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Ketamine and other glutamate receptor modulators for depression in adults

Depression is one of the most common mental disorders, estimated to affect 350 million people worldwide. Antidepressant medication tends to be given as a first treatment for people with major depression. Antidepressants are however only effective in about two out of three people. Effective alternative medications to treat depression are needed. A new group of medications is called ‘glutamate receptor modulators’. This group includes the medicine ketamine. In this review we examined the evidence for glutamate receptor modulators, including ketamine, as a treatment for depression.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Pain relief for removal of femoral sheath after cardiac procedures

Procedures for the non‐surgical management of coronary heart disease include balloon angioplasty (mechanically widening a narrowed or obstructed blood vessel) and intracoronary stenting (a device to support the blood vessel to keep it open). At the start of each procedure an introducer sheath is inserted through the skin (percutaneously) into an artery, frequently a femoral artery in the groin. This allows the different catheters used for the procedure to be exchanged easily without causing trauma to the skin. At the end of the procedure the sheath is removed and, if the puncture site is not 'sealed' using a device closure, firm pressure is required over the site for 30 minutes or more to control any bleeding and reduce vascular complications. Removing the sheath and the firm pressure required to control bleeding can cause pain, although this is generally mild. Some centres routinely give pain relief before removal, such as intravenous morphine, or an injection of a local anaesthetic in the soft tissue around the sheath (called a subcutaneous injection). Adequate pain control during sheath removal is also associated with a reduced incidence of a vasovagal reaction, a potentially serious complication involving a sudden drop of blood pressure and a slowed heart rate.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

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