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Lowback pain (LBP) is one of the most common conditions managed in primary care and a significant cause of absence from work and early retirement. Individuals, their families and society at large all carry part of the burden.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

The aim of the review was to assess the effectiveness of back schools on pain, disability, work status and adverse events compared to another treatment, a placebo (sham treatment) or no treatment for acute and subacute non‐specific lowback pain.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

To evaluate the effectiveness of motor control exercise (MCE) for patients with acute non‐specific low back pain (LBP).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Lowback pain is a common and disabling disorder, representing a great burden both to the individual and society. It often results in reduced quality of life, time lost from work, and substantial medical expense. Spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) is widely practised by a variety of healthcare professionals worldwide and is a common choice for the treatment of lowback pain. The effectiveness of this form of therapy for the management of acute lowback pain is, however, not without dispute.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Neuroreflexotherapy, provided in specialized clinics in Spain, appears to reduce pain and disability for patients with chronic non‐specific lowback pain.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Muscle relaxants are effective for short‐term symptomatic relief in patients with acute and chronic low back pain. However, the incidence of drowsiness, dizziness and other side effects is high. Muscle relaxants must be used with caution and it must be left to the discretion of the physician to weigh the pros and cons and to determine whether or not a specific patient is a suitable candidate for a course of muscle relaxants. Large high quality trials are needed that directly compare muscle relaxants to analgesics or NSAIDs and future studies should focus on reducing the incidence and severity of side effects.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

Sixty to eighty per cent of people suffer from back pain at some time in their lives. Of those who develop acute lowback pain (LBP), up to 30% will go on to develop chronic LBP. The toll on individuals, families and society makes the successful management of this common, but benign condition an important goal.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Lowback pain is one of the most common and costly musculoskeletal problems in modern society. About 80% of the population will experience lowback pain at some time in their lives. Many people with lowback pain seek the care of a chiropractor. For this review, chiropractic was defined as encompassing a combination of therapies such as spinal manipulation, massage, heat and cold therapies, electrotherapies, the use of mechanical devices, exercise programs, nutritional advice, orthotics, lifestyle modification and patient education. The review did not look at studies where chiropractic was defined as spinal manipulation alone as this has been reviewed elsewhere and is not necessarily reflective of actual clinical practice. Non‐specific lowback pain indicates that no specific cause is detectable, such as infection, cancer, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, fracture, inflammatory process or radicular syndrome (pain, tingling or numbness spreading down the leg).Twelve randomised trials (including 2887 participants) assessing various combinations of chiropractic care for lowback pain were included in this review, but only three of these studies were considered to have a low risk of bias.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Chronic lowback pain is a very common problem for which there is currently no universally effective treatment. Patients with chronic lowback pain have many treatment options and it is important for them to understand the evidence behind each treatment option they may be considering. Prolotherapy injections have been used to treat chronic lowback pain for over 50 years but their use remains controversial. They involve repeatedly injecting ligaments with compounds such as dextrose (sugar) and lidocaine (anaesthetic) to help restart the body's natural healing process by causing controlled acute inflammation (swelling) in the areas injected. Proponents believe this leads to stronger ligaments that can better support the lowback. Prolotherapy injections are often combined with other treatments such as spinal manipulation, exercises, and corticosteroid injections into tender muscles to maximize its effect.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Lowback pain is a very common condition, particularly in developed countries. It can cause a great deal of pain and lost activity.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most frequently prescribed medications worldwide and are commonly used for treating lowback pain. This review found 65 studies (including over 11,000 patients) of mixed methodological quality that compared various NSAIDs with placebo (an inactive substance that has no treatment value), other drugs, other therapies and with other NSAIDs. The review authors conclude that NSAIDs are slightly effective for short‐term symptomatic relief in patients with acute and chronic lowback pain without sciatica (pain and tingling radiating down the leg). In patients with acute sciatica, no difference in effect between NSAIDs and placebo was found.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Lumbar supports (also called braces or corsets) are used in the prevention and treatment of lowback pain. This review is important because lowback pain is very common. Prevention and treatment are important both to people with back pain and to society, which bears the expense of back pain treatment and sick leave due to back pain.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Exercise therapy appears to be slightly effective at decreasing pain and improving function in adults with chronic lowback pain, particularly in populations visiting a healthcare provider. In adults with subacute lowback pain there is some evidence that a graded activity program improves absenteeism outcomes, though evidence for other types of exercise is unclear. For patients with acute lowback pain, exercise therapy is as effective as either no treatment or other conservative treatments.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

We reviewed the evidence on the effect of traction on pain intensity, ability to perform normal daily activities, overall improvement and return to work among people with low back pain (LBP) in the acute (less than four weeks' duration), subacute (from four to 12 weeks' duration) or chronic (more than 12 weeks' duration) phase. Some patients also had sciatica. We examined the effects of traction immediately after the traction session, in the short‐term (up to three months after traction) and in the long‐term (around one year after traction).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Thirty‐five RCTs covering 2861 patients were included in this systematic review. There is insufficient evidence to make any recommendations about acupuncture or dry‐needling for acute lowback pain. For chronic lowback pain, results show that acupuncture is more effective for pain relief than no treatment or sham treatment, in measurements taken up to three months. The results also show that for chronic lowback pain, acupuncture is more effective for improving function than no treatment, in the short‐term. Acupuncture is not more effective than other conventional and "alternative" treatments. When acupuncture is added to other conventional therapies, it relieves pain and improves function better than the conventional therapies alone. However, effects are only small. Dry‐needling appears to be a useful adjunct to other therapies for chronic lowback pain.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

There is moderate evidence that heat wrap therapy reduces pain and disability for patients with back pain that lasts for less than three months. The relief has only been shown to occur for a short time and the effect is relatively small. The addition of exercise to heat wrap therapy appears to provide additional benefit. There is still not enough evidence about the effect of the application of cold for lowback pain of any duration, or for heat for back pain that lasts longer than three months.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

LBP is very common. While most back pain gets better without medical treatment, about 10% of cases lasts for three months or more. There are many therapies that are used to treat the pain, and improve the lives of individuals with back pain. Massage is one of these treatments.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Doing exercises regularly after having treatment for acute low back pain can help prevent recurrences in one out of three people.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: December 2, 2015

We examined the evidence regarding the effect of herbal medicine on pain in people with non‐specific lowback pain (LBP).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

To see how well paracetamol works for non‐specific low back pain (LBP). Non‐specific LBP is back pain for which there is no identified disease or condition.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

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