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Lead poisoning at high levels can cause anaemia, multi‐organ damage, seizures, coma and death in children. At chronic low levels it can lead to cognitive, psychological and neurobehavioural impairment. Researchers have studied many different educational and environmental household interventions to prevent lead exposure in children, such as parental education, removal of lead dust or home remediation work. However, it is not clear if and to what extent these interventions work in preventing lead exposure in children.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Many women continue to consume alcohol when they are pregnant. Drinking seven or more standard drinks per week may be harmful, and can cause growth restrictions in babies; binge drinking and heavy alcohol consumption can lead to learning difficulties, behaviour problems and physical disabilities in children. Government policies acknowledge that the occasional drink is not likely to cause harm but that abstinence from alcohol in pregnancy eliminates any possible risks. Psychological and educational interventions (such as supportive counselling sessions and brief educational sessions) may help women to reduce their alcohol intake during pregnancy.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Heavy or dangerous patterns of drinking alcohol can lead to accidents, injuries, physical and psychiatric illnesses, frequent sickness, absence from employment and social problems. Long term alcohol consumption has harmful effects on almost all organs of the body, particularly the brain and gastro‐intestinal system. Healthcare professionals have the opportunity to ask people about how much alcohol they drink and offer brief interventions to heavy drinkers. These brief interventions involve a time limited intervention focusing on changing behaviour. They range from a single session providing information and advice to one to three sessions of motivational interviewing or skills‐based counselling involving feedback and discussion on responsibility and self efficacy. Different health professionals who do not require to be alcohol specialists may give the intervention. Admission to hospital as an inpatient, in general medical wards and trauma centres, provides an opportunity whereby heavy alcohol users are accessible, have time for an intervention, and may be made aware of any links between their hospitalisation and alcohol. The review authors identified 14 randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials involving 4041 mainly male adults (16 years or older) identified as heavy drinkers in hospital, mainly in the UK and USA.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

In epilepsy, certain areas of the brain or all areas of the brain are overactive, sending too many signals. Some people have their first seizure in childhood, and others have their first seizure in older age.Medication can help to prevent seizures and maintain a good quality of life.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: January 13, 2016

Plague is a rare disease now, but can be life threatening. It is transmitted by fleas and related to rat infestation. There are different forms of the disease, but they can all lead to blood poisoning and to death, although antibiotics are effective against the bacterium that causes it. Vaccines are available for use in laboratory staff working on the disease; however when the authors searched the literature they found no studies of sufficient quality to be included in this review. We therefore cannot make confident decisions about the effectiveness or tolerability of any plague vaccines.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

It is not clear whether it would be beneficial to routinely test the urine of pregnant women for bacteria (bacteriuria screening). It is also not possible to say whether antibiotics should be used if high levels of bacteria are detected in the urine but there are no noticeable urinary tract problems.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: December 16, 2015

Self harm (SH), which includes non‐fatal intentional self‐poisoning/overdose and self‐injury, is a major problem in many countries and is linked to risk of future suicide. It is distressing for both patients and their families and friends, and places large demands on clinical services. It is therefore important to assess the evidence on treatments for SH patients.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

The typical signs of scarlet fever are a skin rash and a red tongue ("strawberry tongue"). Serious complications are rare nowadays: Because scarlet fever is caused by bacteria, it can easily be treated with antibiotics.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: April 6, 2017

If you have to sit or lie in the same position for a very long time, you are at greater risk of developing pressure ulcers (also called bedsores or pressure sores). These wounds take a long time to heal and can be very painful, so it is all the more important to stop them from developing in the first place. Read about how to prevent them and how to help someone who is at risk.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: September 23, 2015

Minor injuries to our skin usually heal quite quickly on their own. But some wounds close very slowly, keep on opening up, or do not heal at all. Doctors refer to a wound that that does not heal for a long time as a chronic wound. A circulation disorder or diabetes are common causes.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: September 23, 2015

In Germany, infectious diarrhea is most commonly caused by the norovirus. Infants and young children often have rotavirus infections as well. Viral infections are usually quite intense but short. Bacterial infectious diarrhea is also widespread in adults.Infections with the highly contagious norovirus or rotavirus typically start with sudden and severe symptoms such as diarrhea or vomiting. These symptoms usually go away after a few days. Since 2013, the German Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) has recommended that infants be vaccinated against the rotavirus.Bacterial infectious diarrhea is most often caused by eating contaminated or spoiled food. Like viruses, bacteria such as Campylobacter or Salmonella can also be transmitted through direct contact with infected people or by touching contaminated objects.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: May 4, 2016

This summary will cover: What RLS is Treatment options for RLS What researchers have found about RLS treatments

Comparative Effectiveness Review Summary Guides for Consumers [Internet] - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: August 30, 2013

The pancreas is an organ in the abdomen (tummy) that secretes several digestive enzymes (substances that enable and speed up chemical reactions in the body) into the pancreatic ductal system, which empties into the small bowel. It also contains the Islets of Langerhans, which secrete several hormones including insulin (helps regulate blood sugar). Acute pancreatitis is sudden inflammation of the pancreas and can lead to destruction of the pancreas (pancreatic necrosis). Pancreatic necrosis can be infected or non‐infected (sterile). Pancreatic necrosis can lead to failure of other organs, such as the lungs and kidneys, and is a life‐threatening illness. The main treatments for pancreatic necrosis include removal of the dead tissue (debridement or necrosectomy), peritoneal lavage (washing dead tissue out of the abdomen, drainage (inserting a tube or 'drain' to drain out the fluid collection around the pancreas), or initial drainage followed by necrosectomy if necessary (called the minimally invasive 'step‐up' approach). The minimally invasive step‐up approach can be performed in different ways. For example, in video‐assisted minimally invasive step‐up approach, necrosectomy is performed after a period of drainage through a key‐hole operation; in the endoscopic minimally invasive step‐up approach, necrosectomy is performed with the help of an endoscope (instrument used to look inside the abdomen).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

The goal of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) (continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or bilevel NPPV) compared with oxygen therapy alone in adults with acute respiratory failure after upper abdominal surgery.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

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