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Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of renal pelvis and ureter transitional cell cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: May 22, 2015

Treating kidney stones

Small kidney stones often pass on their own and don't need treatment as long as they don't cause any severe pain or complications. Larger kidney stones usually need to be removed. Depending on how large the kidney stones are and where they're located, they can be destroyed, removed using endoscopy or operated on.Kidney stones with a diameter of less than 5 millimeters pass on their own 70% of the time, and stones that are between 5 and 10 millimeters are flushed out in about 50% of cases. The amount of time this takes varies greatly. Small kidney stones are often passed in your urine after one or two weeks.If a stone is expected to be flushed out with your urine without any treatment, it's usual to simply wait. Anti-inflammatory painkillers like diclofenac can provide relief if the kidney stone causes pain as it travels through the ureter.Larger stones will usually have to be broken up or surgically removed. This needs to be done in the following instances:The kidney stone isn't passed within four weeks.There are complications.It causes severe renal colic.The stone is larger than 10 mm in diameter.Uric acid stones can sometimes be dissolved using medication.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: February 25, 2016

Kidney stones: Overview

Kidney stones are very common, especially in people between the ages of 20 and 40. These small, hard deposits form in the renal pelvis and can enter a ureter. Larger stones can be painful and often have to be surgically removed. There are several options for treatment and prevention.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: February 25, 2016

Urinary Incontinence in Women: The Management of Urinary Incontinence in Women

This guidance is a partial update of National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) clinical guideline 40 (published October 2006) and will replace it.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: September 2013

Urinary Incontinence in Neurological Disease: Management of Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction in Neurological Disease

The guideline covers adults and children (from birth) with lower urinary tract dysfunction resulting from neurological disease or injury.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: August 2012
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Nocturnal Enuresis: The Management of Bedwetting in Children and Young People

This guideline aims to provide advice on the assessment and management of children and young people with bedwetting. The guidance is applicable to children and young people up to 19 years with the symptom of bedwetting. It has been common practice to define enuresis as abnormal from 5 years and only to consider children for treatment when they are 7 years. While the prevalence of symptoms decreases with age the guideline scope did not specify a younger age limit in order to consider whether there were useful interventions that might be of benefit to children previously excluded from advice and services.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: 2010
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Should low-dose computed tomography kidneys, ureter and bladder be the new investigation of choice in suspected renal colic? A systematic review

INTRODUCTION: Computed tomography kidneys, ureter and bladder (CTKUB) is the accepted gold standard investigation for suspected renal colic. Dose considerations are particularly pertinent in the context of detecting urolithiasis given the high risk of disease recurrence, which can necessitate multiple radiological examinations over the lifetime of a stone-former. We performed a systematic review of the literature to see whether there was any evidence that reducing the effective radiation dose of a CTKUB compromised the diagnostic accuracy of the scan.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Bladder Cancer: Diagnosis and Management

Bladder cancer is the seventh most common cancer in the UK, with just over 10,000 cases diagnosed each year (CRUK, 2013a). These are unevenly split between men (fourth most common cancer) and women (11th most common cancer).

NICE Guideline - National Collaborating Centre for Cancer (UK).

Version: February 2015
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Imaging Tests To Check for Kidney Stones in the Emergency Department

You have come to the emergency department and the emergency doctor has recommended an imaging test to check for kidney stones. This summary will tell you about two types of imaging tests—a CT scan (computed tomography scan) and an ultrasound.

Comparative Effectiveness Review Summary Guides for Consumers [Internet] - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: July 29, 2016

Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of bladder cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: July 7, 2016

Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of bladder cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: April 7, 2017

Treatment of Nonmetastatic Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer [Internet]

Although the standard treatment for nonmetastatic muscle-invasive bladder cancer is cystectomy and neoadjuvant chemotherapy, there is interest in bladder-preserving therapy as an alternative, and there is uncertainty about the need for and optimal extent of lymph node dissection and optimal chemotherapy regimens and timing of administration.

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: June 2015
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Acute Kidney Injury: Prevention, Detection and Management Up to the Point of Renal Replacement Therapy [Internet]

Acute kidney injury (AKI), previously called acute renal failure, has chiefly been described as a syndrome since World War 2. Traditionally ‘acute renal failure’ was regarded as a less common organ failure, with patients typically requiring dialysis and managed by nephrologists. This view has now been overturned. AKI encompasses a wide spectrum of injury to the kidneys, not just ‘kidney failure’. It is a common problem amongst hospitalised patients, in particular the elderly population whose numbers are increasing as people live longer. Such patients are usually under the care of doctors practicing in specialties other than nephrology. For normal function the kidneys require a competent circulation. Conversely, it is known that renal function is vulnerable to even relative or quite modest hypotension or hypovolaemia. Hence AKI is a feature of many severe illnesses. Although these illnesses may affect many organs, the simple process of monitoring urine output and/or creatinine permits detection of AKI.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: August 2013
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Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of Wilms tumor.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: April 12, 2017

Chronic Kidney Disease (Partial Update): Early Identification and Management of Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults in Primary and Secondary Care

The Renal National Service Framework (NSF), and the subsequent NICE Clinical Practice Guideline for early identification and management of adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in primary and secondary care (CG73), served to emphasise the change in focus in renal medicine from treatment of established kidney disease to earlier identification and prevention of kidney disease.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: July 2014
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Immunosuppressive therapy for kidney transplantation in adults: a systematic review and economic model

The study found that for induction therapy in adult renal transplantation no treatment regimen appeared more effective than another in reducing graft loss or mortality, and, for maintenance therapy, none of the treatment regimens was better for all outcomes or appeared most effective at reducing graft loss. When comparing all treatment regimens only one combination of treatments was cost-effective.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: August 2016

Genetics of Kidney Cancer (Renal Cell Cancer) (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the genetics of kidney cancer, including information about specific genes and family cancer syndromes. The summary also contains information about screening for kidney cancer and research aimed at prevention of this disease.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: March 8, 2017

Urinary Tract Infection in Children: Diagnosis, Treatment and Long-term Management

In the past 30–50 years, the natural history of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children has changed as a result of the introduction of antibiotics and improvements in health care. This change has contributed to uncertainty about the most appropriate and effective way to diagnose and treat UTI in children and whether or not investigations and follow-up are justified.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: August 2007
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The diagnostic accuracy and cost-effectiveness of magnetic resonance spectroscopy and enhanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques in aiding the localisation of prostate abnormalities for biopsy: a systematic review and economic evaluation

Study assessing the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques in aiding the localisation of prostate abnormalities for biopsy found that MRS had higher sensitivity and specificity than T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (T2-MRI) but produced no definitive conclusions on the cost-effectiveness of using different MRS/MRI sequences.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: May 2013
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Positron emission tomography/computerised tomography imaging in detecting and managing recurrent cervical cancer: systematic review of evidence, elicitation of subjective probabilities and economic modelling

Study found that the addition of PET-CT to standard practice is not cost-effective in the diagnosis of recurrent or persistent cervical cancer but that should more reliable information become available on accuracy, therapeutic impact and effectiveness, and the cost of PET-CT decrease, this conclusion may need revision

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: March 2013

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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