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This guideline is a partial update of ‘The epilepsies: the diagnosis and management of the epilepsies in adults and children in primary and secondary care’ (NICE clinical guideline 20, 2004). It updates the pharmacological management sections of the 2004 guideline and also includes the use of the ketogenic diet.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: January 2012

It is a requirement of the Children’s National Service Framework that all ill children should have access to high-quality, cost-effective, evidence-based care. Because it is difficult to evaluate the severity of the illness, there is a need for evidence-based guidance to inform healthcare professionals about how to judge whether a child who presents with a fever is likely to develop a serious illness. Healthcare professionals also need advice to support their decision on whether to observe the child, perform diagnostic tests, start treatment such as antibiotics or refer onwards for specialist care. The guidance should also include advice on the best ways to detect fever, the management of fever itself, and what to tell parents and carers who have made contact with healthcare services. The guidance should be applicable to primary and secondary care and should take account of the number of agencies that are involved in giving health care and giving advice to parents and carers. It is also important that parental preferences, as well as the child’s best interests in terms of health outcomes, should be taken into account when considering the various options for investigation and treatment.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: May 2013

To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the safety of vaccines recommended for routine immunization of children, adolescents, and adults in the United States as of 2011.

Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: July 2014

This guideline has been developed to advise on the identification and management of depression in children and young people in primary, community and secondary care. The guideline recommendations have been developed by a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, carers, and guideline methodologists after careful consideration of the best available evidence. It is intended that the guidelines will be useful to clinicians and service commissioners in providing and planning high-quality care for children and young people with depression while also emphasising the importance of the experience of care for patients and their families.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).

Version: 2005

This guideline covers the management of spasticity and co-existing motor disorders and their early musculoskeletal complications in children and young people (from birth up to their 19th birthday) with non-progressive brain disorders.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: July 2012

Jaundice is one of the most common conditions requiring medical attention in newborn babies. Approximately 60% of term and 80% of preterm babies develop jaundice in the first week of life, and about 10% of breastfed babies are still jaundiced at 1 month of age. In most babies with jaundice thevre is no underlying disease, and this early jaundice (termed ‘physiological jaundice’) is generally harmless. However, there are pathological causes of jaundice in the newborn, which, although rare, need to be detected. Such pathological jaundice may co-exist with physiological jaundice.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: May 2010

Cancer is an important condition, both in terms of the number of people affected and the impacts on those people and the people close to them. Around one third of a million new cancers are diagnosed annually in the UK, across over 200 different cancer types. Each of these cancer types has different presenting features, though there may be overlap. More than one third of the population will develop a cancer in their lifetime. Although there have been large advances in treatment and survival, with a half of cancer sufferers now living at least ten years after diagnosis, it remains the case that more than a quarter of all people alive now will die of cancer.

NICE Guideline - National Collaborating Centre for Cancer (UK).

Version: June 2015

Insomnia is a serious health problem that affects millions of people. Population surveys have estimated the prevalence of insomnia to be about 30% to 50% of the general population. About three-fourths of people who have trouble sleeping say that the problem is "occasional," averaging about 6 nights per month, with one-fourth having frequent or chronic insomnia, averaging about 16 nights per month. Individuals with insomnia most often report a combination of difficulty falling asleep and intermittent wakefulness during sleep. Treatment of insomnia involves behavioral changes, such as minimizing habits that interfere with sleep (for example, drinking coffee or engaging in stressful activities in the evening), and pharmacotherapy with sedating antidepressants (for example, trazodone), sedating antihistamines, anticholinergics, benzodiazepines, or nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics. The benzodiazepines and the newer sedative hypnotics zolpidem, zaleplon, zopiclone, and eszopiclone work through gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors. Ramelteon, a hypnotic approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in July 2005, is a selective melatonin receptor (MT1 and MT2) agonist. New nonbenzodiazepine drugs have been sought for multiple reasons, including reduction of the risk of tolerance, dependence, and abuse associated with benzodiazepines. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the comparative evidence on benefits and harms of these medications in people with insomnia to help policymakers and clinicians make informed choices about the use of newer drugs for insomnia.

Drug Class Reviews - Oregon Health & Science University.

Version: October 2008

This clinical guideline was commissioned by NICE and developed by the National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health. It sets out clear, evidenceand consensus-based recommendations for healthcare staff on how to treat and manage depression in adults with a chronic physical health problem.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).

Version: 2010

Study found that, transthoracic echocardiography in second harmonic imaging mode is a cost-effective use of NHS resources in those cases where clinicians deem it the most appropriate method of testing to identify cardiac sources of stroke and transient ischaemic attack. However, the study highlights that there is a lack of evidence in several areas and the results of the economic evaluation should be treated with caution.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: March 2014

Antiepileptic drugs have been used beyond treatment of seizure disorders since the 1960s. As new antiepileptic drugs have become available, there has been interest in how they compare with older therapies (carbamazepine, phenytoin, and valproate) and each other in disorders where conventional pharmacotherapy has typically been suboptimal and limited by drug-related toxicity. The objective of this report is to evaluate the comparative effectiveness and harms of antiepileptic drugs used for bipolar disorder, fibromyalgia, migraine prophylaxis, and chronic pain.

Drug Class Reviews - Oregon Health & Science University.

Version: October 2008

This guideline covers bacterial meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia, focusing on management of these conditions in children and young people aged younger than 16 years in primary and secondary care, and using evidence of direct relevance to these age groups where available.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: 2010

The guideline is intended to cover the care of healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies entering labour at low risk of developing intrapartum complications. In addition, recommendations are included that address the care of women who start labour as ‘low risk’ but who go on to develop complications. These include the care of women with prelabour rupture of membranes at term, care of the woman and baby when meconium is present, indications for continuous cardiotocography, interpretation of cardiotocography traces, and management of retained placenta and postpartum haemorrhage. Aspects of intrapartum care for women at risk of developing intrapartum complications are covered by a range of guidelines on specific conditions (see section 1.8) and a further guideline is planned on intrapartum care of women ‘at high risk’ of complications during pregnancy and the intrapartum period.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: December 2014

This guidance provides a summary of the clinical features associated with maltreatment (alerting features) that may be observed when a child presents to healthcare professionals. Its purpose is to raise awareness and help healthcare professionals who are not specialists in child protection to identify children who may be being maltreated. It does not give healthcare professionals recommendations on how to diagnose, confirm or disprove child maltreatment.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: July 2009

Patients with minor head injury [Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score 13–15] have a small but important risk of intracranial injury (ICI) that requires early identification and neurosurgical treatment. Diagnostic assessment can use either a clinical decision rule or unstructured assessment of individual clinical features to identify those who are at risk of ICI and in need of computerised tomography (CT) scanning and/or hospital admission. Selective use of CT investigations helps minimise unnecessary radiation exposure and resource use, but can lead to missed opportunities to provide early treatment for ICI.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: August 2011

The guideline makes recommendations for the use of pharmacological, psychological and service-level interventions. It aims to:

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).

Version: December 2014

To review the evidence on first- and second-generation antipsychotics (FGAs and SGAs) for the treatment of various psychiatric and behavioral conditions in children, adolescents, and young adults (ages ≤ 24 years).

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: March 2017

Early-onset neonatal bacterial infection (infection with onset within 72 hours of birth) is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in newborn babies. Parent organisations and the scientific literature report that there can be unnecessary delays in recognising and treating sick babies. In addition, concern about the possibility of early-onset neonatal infection is common. This concern is an important influence on the care given to pregnant women and newborn babies. There is wide variation in how the risk of early-onset neonatal infection is managed in healthy babies. The approach taken by the NHS needs to: prioritise the treatment of sick babies, minimise the impact of management pathways on healthy women and babies, use antibiotics wisely to avoid the development of resistance to antibiotics. These drivers have not always been addressed consistently in the NHS, and this guideline was commissioned to ensure they would be addressed in future.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: August 2012

This clinical guideline on depression is an updated edition of the previous guidance (published in 2004). It was commissioned by NICE and developed by the National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health, and sets out clear, evidence- and consensus-based recommendations for healthcare staff on how to treat and manage depression in adults.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).

Version: 2010

This guideline has been developed to advise on the treatment and management of bipolar disorder. The guideline recommendations have been developed by a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, patients and guideline methodologists after careful consideration of the best available evidence. It is intended that the guidelines will be useful to clinicians and service commissioners in providing and planning high quality care for those with bipolar disorder while also emphasising the importance of the experience of care for patients and carers.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).

Version: 2006

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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