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Standard treatment of X‐linked hypophosphatemia can heal rickets but does not always raise the level of phosphates in the blood or return growth levels to normal. It is unclear whether combining human growth hormone therapy with standard treatment improves the phosphate levels, growth rates and bone mineral density. Only one small trial with five children was included in this review. The human growth hormone treatment improved the z score for height and briefly increased the level of phosphates in the blood. However, we found no conclusive evidence that favours the use of human growth hormone treatment for this condition. There have not been enough trials of human growth hormone treatment for this condition and more research is needed.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: January 24, 2005

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is very common among patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU), it is associated with a high death rated and characterised by the rapid loss of the kidney function. Patients with AKI show increased levels of serum uraemic toxins (creatinine and urea), serum potassium and metabolic acids, accumulation of water and in the most cases a reduction in urine output. In this population these chemicals and fluid overload are related to increased rates of death. Theoretically, effective removal of toxins and excess water from the bloodstream might improve patient outcomes (such as mortality rate and recovery of kidney function).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: October 4, 2016

The rate of adolescents presenting with anorexia nervosa (AN) is increasing. Medically unstable adolescents are admitted to the hospital for nutrition restoration. A lack of global consensus on appropriate refeeding practices of malnourished patients has resulted in inconsistent refeeding practices. Refeeding hypophosphatemia (RH) is the most common complication associated with refeeding the malnourished patient. This review sought to identify the range of refeeding rates adopted globally and the implication that total energy intake and malnutrition may have on RH while refeeding adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Studies were identified by a systematic electronic search of medical databases from 1980 to September 2012. Seventeen publications were identified, including 6 chart reviews, 1 observational study, and 10 case reports, with a total of 1039 subjects. The average refeeding energy intake was 1186 kcal/d, ranging from 125-1900 kcal/d, with a mean percentage median body mass index (% mBMI) of 78%. The average incidence rate of RH was 14%. A significant correlation between malnutrition (% mBMI) and post-refeeding phosphate was identified (R (2) = 0.6, P = .01). This review highlights the disparity in refeeding rates adopted internationally in treating malnourished adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Based on this review, the severity of malnutrition seems to be a marker for the development of RH more so than total energy intake.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

Over the past few decades, great improvements in diagnostics and treatment have resulted in a major increase in survival rates of childhood cancer. However, childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are at great risk of developing adverse effects as a result of their cancer treatment. One of the potential adverse effects of childhood cancer treatment is kidney damage. Renal adverse effects are common during and just after treatment, but very little evidence is available on the frequency of renal function impairment in long‐term CCS and on what the risk factors are. Survivors with impaired renal function due to childhood cancer treatment are usually symptom free. The kidneys are remarkably well able to compensate for problems in their functioning. However, when renal late adverse events become symptomatic, survivors can experience a range of symptoms, depending on the kidney functions that are damaged. This systematic review aimed to assess the magnitude of asymptomatic and symptomatic early and late renal adverse events in long‐term CCS and to identify which risk factors contribute to impaired renal function.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: October 8, 2013

Diabetes is a long-term condition that can have a major impact on the life of a child or young person, as well as their family or carers. In addition to insulin therapy, diabetes management should include education, support and access to psychological services, as detailed here and in this guideline. Preparations should also be made for the transition from paediatric to adult services, which have a somewhat different model of care and evidence base.

NICE Guideline - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: August 2015

Late effects of cancer treatment can cause serious, disabling, and life-threatening chronic health conditions that adversely affect the health of aging childhood cancer survivors. Learn about subsequent neoplasms and the cardiovascular, cognitive, psychosocial, digestive, endocrine, immune, musculoskeletal, reproductive, and urinary late effects of pediatric cancer treatment in this expert-reviewed summary.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: January 2, 2018

Nutrition methods and dietary supplements have been studied for prostate cancer prevention or treatment. Read about the history of research, laboratory, and human studies on various prostate supplements, such as calcium, green tea, lycopene, pomegranate, selenium, soy, and vitamin E in this expert-reviewed summary.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: February 1, 2018

We conducted this systematic review to support the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force in updating its recommendation on screening for colorectal cancer (CRC). Our review addresses three questions: 1) What is the effectiveness of screening programs in reducing incidence of and mortality from CRC? 2) What are the test performance characteristics of the different screening tests for detecting CRC, advanced adenomas, and/or adenomatous polyps based on size? and 3) What are the adverse effects of the different screening tests, and do adverse effects vary by important subpopulations?

Evidence Syntheses - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: June 2016

Determining the long-term effectiveness and costs of regenerative medicines will be associated with considerable uncertainty and potential bias, but existing methods are sufficient to incorporate this uncertainty for decision-making.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: February 2017

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) describes abnormal kidney function and/or structure. It is common and often exists together with other conditions, such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (UK).

Version: March 2013

These guidelines cover most aspects of nutrition support in adult patients (>18 years) who are either malnourished or are at ‘risk’ of malnutrition. In some cases specific guidance related to patients in specific care settings or with specific diseases has been provided but in general the guidance is applicable to patients whatever their setting (hospital or community) or disease. The guideline therefore includes: information on the prevalence of malnutrition and the benefits of good nutrition; guidance on the appropriate forums for the organisation of nutrition support in all settings; guidance on who should be screened for malnutrition and when, along with the criteria for consideration when assessing patients’ nutritional status; the general indications for nutrition support together with ethical and legal considerations that may arise; guidance on the process and special considerations required to prescribe nutrition support and details information on the important parameters to monitor for patients receiving nutrition support; detailed guidance on the administration of oral, enteral and parenteral nutrition including; the appropriate types of access for enteral and parenteral nutrition and the optimum mode of delivering these; specific guidance on the management of providing nutrition support to patients with dysphagia; issues to consider for patients receiving enteral and parenteral nutrition support in the community; issues arising for patients and their carers.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Acute Care (UK).

Version: February 2006

The objective of this systematic review is to examine the beneficial and harmful effects of cobicistat-boosted darunavir (DRV/COBI) 800 mg/150 mg for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in antiretroviral treatment-naive and treatment-experienced patients without darunavir (DRV) resistance-associated mutations (RAMs).

Common Drug Review - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: July 2015

These are the first World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for the prevention, care and treatment of persons living with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection, and complement similar recently published guidance by WHO on the prevention, care and treatment of infection due to the hepatitis C virus (HCV).

World Health Organization.

Version: March 2015

Chronic hepatitis B describes a spectrum of disease usually characterised by the presence of detectable hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in the blood or serum for longer than 6 months. In some people, chronic hepatitis B is inactive and does not present significant health problems, but others may progress to liver fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The progression of liver disease is associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels in the blood. Without antiviral treatment, the 5-year cumulative incidence of cirrhosis ranges from 8 to 20%. People with cirrhosis face a significant risk of decompensated liver disease if they remain untreated. Five-year survival rates among people with untreated decompensated cirrhosis can be as low as 15%. Chronic hepatitis B can be divided into e antigen- (HBeAg) positive or HBeAg-negative disease based on the presence or absence of e antigen. The presence of HBeAg is typically associated with higher rates of viral replication and therefore increased infectivity.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: June 2013

The objective of this systematic review is to evaluate of the beneficial and harmful effects of the fixed-dose combination (FDC) of elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (EVG/COBI/FTC/TAF) for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in adults and pediatric patients 12 years of age and older with no known mutations associated with resistance to the individual components of EVG/COBI/FTC/TAF.

Common Drug Review - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: November 2016

The Renal National Service Framework (NSF), and the subsequent NICE Clinical Practice Guideline for early identification and management of adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in primary and secondary care (CG73), served to emphasise the change in focus in renal medicine from treatment of established kidney disease to earlier identification and prevention of kidney disease.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: July 2014

This guideline has been developed to advise on the identification, treatment and management of the eating disorders anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and related conditions. The guideline recommendations have been developed by a multidisciplinary group of health care professionals, patients and their representatives, and guideline methodologists after careful consideration of the best available evidence. It is intended that the guideline will be useful to clinicians and service commissioners in providing and planning high quality care for those with eating disorders while also emphasising the importance of the experience of care for patients and carers.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).

Version: 2004

These guidelines provide guidance on the diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection and the care of people living with HIV. They are structured along the continuum of HIV testing, prevention, treatment and care.

World Health Organization.

Version: 2016

Type 1 diabetes affects over 370,000 adults in the UK, representing approximately 10% of adults diagnosed with diabetes. Given the complexity of its treatment regimens, successful outcomes depend, perhaps more than with any other long-term condition, on full engagement of the adult with type 1 diabetes in life-long day-by-day self-management. In order to support this, the health service needs to provide informed, expert support, education and training as well as a range of other more conventional biomedical services and interventionsfor the prevention and management of long term complications and disability.

NICE Guideline - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: August 2015

AIM: To assess the effect and safety of lanthanum carbonate (LC) for hypophosphatemia in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD).

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

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