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Initial arch wires for tooth alignment in orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances

Orthodontic treatment is undertaken worldwide, mainly in adolescents and adults to correct crowded, rotated, buried or prominent front teeth. Fixed orthodontic appliances (braces) consist of brackets bonded to the teeth that are connected by arch wires which exert forces on the teeth. The first (initial) type of arch wire, inserted at the beginning of treatment, is for correcting crowding and rotations of teeth.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Interventions for the prevention and treatment of pes cavus (high‐arched foot deformity)

Pes cavus is characterised by an excessively high medial longitudinal arch (the arch on the inside of the foot) and is typically defined as a high‐arched or supinated foot type. Population based studies suggest the prevalence of pes cavus is approximately 10%, and its cause is primarily neuromuscular (for example Charcot‐Marie‐Tooth disease) or idiopathic (unknown) in nature. It has been estimated that 60% of people with cavus feet will experience chronic foot pain at some time in their life, most commonly beneath the forefoot (for example metatarsalgia, sesamoiditis) or heel (for example plantar fasciitis). Conditions such as these are thought to be the result of abnormal pressure distribution across the sole of the foot during walking. Many conservative therapies and surgical procedures have been recommended for cavus‐related foot pain. In particular, foot orthoses (aids applied and worn on the outside of the body to support the bony structures) customised to an individual's foot shape are increasingly prescribed by podiatrists, physiotherapists, orthopaedic surgeons and rehabilitation specialists for people with pes cavus pain. This updated review analysed four relevant trials, but only one fully met the inclusion criteria. This trial with 154 adults showed that custom‐made foot orthoses can reduce and redistribute plantar foot pressure and subsequently decrease foot pain by approximately 75%. Some biomechanical outcomes, such as pressure distribution, improve with custom‐made foot orthoses and footwear, but many other biomechanical outcomes, such as foot alignment or muscle activity, do not improve with botulinum toxin or off‐the‐shelf foot orthoses, respectively. More research is needed to determine the effectiveness of other interventions for people with painful high‐arched feet.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Interventions for stopping dummy or finger or thumb sucking habits in children

Often babies and children develop a habit of sucking objects to comfort and calm them. They frequently suck dummies (known as pacifiers in the USA), fingers, thumbs or other items like blankets. Eventually, most children grow out of the habit, or stop due to encouragement from their parents. Some children, however, continue sucking as a habit. If they continue to do so as their adult teeth start to grow through (around the age of six), there is a risk that these adult teeth will grow into the wrong position causing them to stick out too far or not meet properly when biting. As a result these children often need dental treatment to fix the problems caused by their sucking habit.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Comparison of surgical techniques for the treatment of patients with lumbar stenosis

Laminectomy is the "gold standard" surgical treatment for low back spinal stenosis. The goal of this surgical procedure is to alleviate symptoms such as pain, numbness and weakness of the legs and buttocks.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

What is the best method for maintaining the correct position of teeth after orthodontic treatment?

Once people finish having their teeth straightened with orthodontic braces, the teeth will tend to get crooked again. Orthodontists try to prevent this by using different retention procedures. Retention procedures can include either wearing retainers, which fit over or around teeth, or stick onto the back of teeth, or by using something called 'adjunctive procedures'. Adjunctive procedures either change the shape of the contacts between teeth, or involve a very small procedure to cut the connection between the gum and the neck of the tooth.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Adhesives for fixed orthodontic bands

There is insufficient evidence to determine the most effective adhesive for attaching orthodontic bands to molar teeth in patients with full arch fixed orthodontic appliances.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Open versus closed surgical exposure of canine teeth that are displaced in the roof of the mouth

Canines in the upper jaw usually erupt in the mouth between the age of 11 to 12 years. In 2% to 3% of the population these teeth fail to erupt into the mouth and become lodged in the roof of the mouth (palate), they are then referred to as 'palatally impacted'. Their impaction can cause damage to the roots of neighbouring teeth and the damage may be so severe that these neighbouring teeth are subsequently lost. The tissue around these impacted canine teeth may undergo cystic change. Also, impaction of these teeth can lead to aesthetic problems.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

Angioplasty versus stenting for subclavian artery stenosis

The subclavian arteries are two major arteries of the upper chest, below the collar bone, that come from the arch of the aorta. The left subclavian artery supplies blood to the left arm and the right subclavian artery supplies blood to the right arm, with some branches supplying blood to the head and chest. A history of smoking, high blood pressure, lower levels of 'good' (high density lipoprotein) cholesterol and peripheral arterial disease are associated with an increased risk of subclavian artery narrowing or stenosis. Subclavian artery stenosis is often without symptoms. Symptoms when they occur include short‐lasting vertigo, commonly described as the environment spinning, due to decreased blood flow in the back part of the brain and blood circulation problems in the hands and arms.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Interventions for replacing missing teeth: partially absent dentition

Methods for treating patients with some missing teeth.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Surgical removal versus retention for the management of asymptomatic disease‐free impacted wisdom teeth

This review, produced through Cochrane Oral Health, seeks to assess the effects of removal compared with conservative management of impacted wisdom teeth, in the absence of symptoms and without evidence of local disease, in adolescents and adults. This is an update of an existing review published in 2012.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Custom‐made foot orthoses for the treatment of foot pain 

Decreases foot pain after 3 months compared with fake foot orthoses.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

Non‐surgical interventions for flat feet in children

This summary of a Cochrane review presents what we know from research about the effect of non‐surgical treatments for pes planus (flat feet) in children.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Pharmacological treatments for Friedreich ataxia

We reviewed the evidence about the effect of antioxidants and other medicines for Friedreich ataxia.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Radiotherapy alone versus radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy before operation of rectal cancer

Patients with cancer of the rectum, the end part of the large bowel immediately above the anus, are treated with surgery. When the tumour is deemed to present a high risk of recurrence after surgery, a course of radiotherapy (RT) is administered before the operation. It has been proven in clinical studies that this 'preoperative' radiotherapy improves the outcome in rectal cancer patients. Recently, several studies have investigated the combination of radiotherapy with chemotherapy (CRT) before surgery. In theory, adding chemotherapy enhances the antitumour activity of radiotherapy. This meta‐analysis has summarized the results of five studies that compared preoperative RT alone with preoperative CRT in rectal cancer patients. All of these studies were randomized, which means that the decision to administer either RT or CRT was determined by chance (ballot draw). The results of the meta‐analysis may be summarized as follows. Compared to RT alone, preoperative CRT leads to increased side effects during treatment. Also, postoperative complications are somewhat increased, although the risk of dying from postoperative complications is similar. Preoperative CRT is more effective in causing tumour shrinkage (downstaging), and in preventing local recurrence of the disease. However, addition of chemotherapy did not result in more sphincter preserving surgeries, and did not affect the overall survival in rectal cancer patients.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Interventions for congenital talipes equinovarus (clubfoot)

The purpose of this review was to assess treatments for congenital talipes equinovarus (clubfoot).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Additional, non‐surgical treatments for accelerating tooth movement in dental patients being treated with fixed braces

Throughout the world, orthodontic treatment is used to correct the position of teeth in adolescents and adults when they experience problems. Braces are orthodontic appliances made up of brackets glued to the teeth and then connected by wires in order to exert pressure on the teeth to move them and improve their positioning. Depending on the problem, the length of time for treatment may range from several months to several years. However, most treatments take on average, around 24 months. Accelerating the rate of tooth movement may help to reduce the length of time needed for a course of treatment and may reduce the unwanted effects of orthodontic treatment that can sometimes occur, such as tooth decay and the shortening of the tooth root. Several methods, including surgical and non‐surgical treatments, have been suggested to accelerate orthodontic tooth movement. The evidence relating to non‐surgical procedures to accelerate orthodontic tooth movement is assessed in this review.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

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