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About - Hepatitis E

A virus that causes hepatitis (inflammation of the liver). It is usually spread through food that has been handled by an infected person, or through drinking water that is contaminated with human waste.

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Viral hepatitis causes significant morbidity and mortality. Based on this Cochrane systematic review, bile acids may decrease serum transaminase activities in patients with acute hepatitis B, chronic hepatitis B, or chronic hepatitis C. However, bile acids have no effects in eradicating viral markers. There is insufficient evidence either to support or to refute effects on the long‐term outcomes that include hepatocellular carcinoma, decompensated cirrhosis, and/or liver related mortality.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Hepatitis B and C, cirrhosis, and aflatoxin (poison from certain foods) are important risk factors for liver cancer. Learn about all of the risk factors for liver cancer and how to prevent liver cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: May 5, 2017

Expert-reviewed information summary about factors that may influence the risk of developing hepatocellular cancer and about research aimed at the prevention of this disease.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: May 3, 2017

Testing and diagnosis of hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) infection is the gateway for access to both prevention and treatment services, and is a crucial component of an effective response to the hepatitis epidemic. Early identification of persons with chronic HBV or HCV infection enables them to receive the necessary care and treatment to prevent or delay progression of liver disease. Testing also provides an opportunity to link people to interventions to reduce transmission, through counselling on risk behaviours and provision of prevention commodities (such as sterile needles and syringes) and hepatitis B vaccination.

World Health Organization.

Version: February 2017

Alcohol is the most widely used psychotropic drug in the industrialised world; it has been used for thousands of years as a social lubricant and anxiolytic. In the UK, it is estimated that 24% of adult men and 13% of adult women drink in a hazardous or harmful way. Levels of hazardous and harmful drinking are lowest in the central and eastern regions of England (21–24% of men and 10–14% of women). They are highest in the north (26–28% of men, 16–18% of women). Hazardous and harmful drinking are commonly encountered amongst hospital attendees; 12% of emergency department attendances are directly related to alcohol whilst 20% of patients admitted to hospital for illnesses unrelated to alcohol are drinking at potentially hazardous levels. Continued hazardous and harmful drinking can result in dependence and tolerance with the consequence that an abrupt reduction in intake might result in development of a withdrawal syndrome. In addition, persistent drinking at hazardous and harmful levels can also result in damage to almost every organ or system of the body. Alcohol-attributable conditions include liver damage, pancreatitis and the Wernicke’s encephalopathy. Key areas in the investigation and management of these conditions are covered in this guideline.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: 2010

This guideline contains recommendations about general principles of blood transfusion, and applies to a range of conditions and different settings. It does not include recommendations relating to specific conditions and provides guidance on:

NICE Guideline - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: November 2015

Chronic hepatitis B describes a spectrum of disease usually characterised by the presence of detectable hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in the blood or serum for longer than 6 months. In some people, chronic hepatitis B is inactive and does not present significant health problems, but others may progress to liver fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The progression of liver disease is associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels in the blood. Without antiviral treatment, the 5-year cumulative incidence of cirrhosis ranges from 8 to 20%. People with cirrhosis face a significant risk of decompensated liver disease if they remain untreated. Five-year survival rates among people with untreated decompensated cirrhosis can be as low as 15%. Chronic hepatitis B can be divided into e antigen- (HBeAg) positive or HBeAg-negative disease based on the presence or absence of e antigen. The presence of HBeAg is typically associated with higher rates of viral replication and therefore increased infectivity.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: June 2013

The original antenatal care guideline was published by NICE in 2003. Since then a number of important pieces of evidence have become available, particularly concerning gestational diabetes, haemoglobinopathy and ultrasound, so that the update was initiated. This update has also provided an opportunity to look at a number of aspects of antenatal care: the development of a method to assess women for whom additional care is necessary (the ‘antenatal assessment tool’), information giving to women, lifestyle (vitamin D supplementation, alcohol consumption), screening for the baby (use of ultrasound for gestational age assessment and screening for fetal abnormalities, methods for determining normal fetal growth, placenta praevia), and screening for the mother (haemoglobinopathy screening, gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia and preterm labour, chlamydia).

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: March 2008

The objective of this systematic review is to examine the beneficial and harmful effects of cobicistat-boosted darunavir (DRV/COBI) 800 mg/150 mg for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in antiretroviral treatment-naive and treatment-experienced patients without darunavir (DRV) resistance-associated mutations (RAMs).

Common Drug Review - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: July 2015

These are the first World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for the prevention, care and treatment of persons living with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection, and complement similar recently published guidance by WHO on the prevention, care and treatment of infection due to the hepatitis C virus (HCV).

World Health Organization.

Version: March 2015

The guideline covers the identification and assessment of suspected cirrhosis, monitoring to detect complications and management of complications such as ascites and hepatorenal syndrome and referral for tertiary care.

NICE Guideline - National Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: July 2016

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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