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Plain language summary will be included with future review update.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

This review compared high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (HDIVIG) plus phototherapy with phototherapy alone. The authors concluded that addition of HDIVIG to phototherapy is an effective treatment for haemolytic disease of the newborn. The review was generally well conducted and the evidence presented supports the conclusions, although it should be noted that the number of included studies and patients was small.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2003

Extremely high levels of bilirubin (severe jaundice) can lead to brain damage. Severe jaundice in newborns can occur as a result of a variety of causes including rhesus hemolytic disease, ABO incompatibility, atypical antibodies etc. Removal of blood from the affected infant and replacing with fresh blood from the blood bank (exchange transfusion) is used as a treatment for severe jaundice in newborn infants. The affected infant's blood is removed in small portions and equal volume of blood is replaced during exchange transfusion. Traditionally twice the blood volume of baby is removed and the replaced with fresh blood. Exchange transfusion has been shown to reduce brain damage in severely jaundiced babies; however, exchange transfusion is associated with serious adverse events including death. It is likely that the complications of exchange transfusion would increase with amount of blood exchanged. This review was undertaken to examine if single volume (removal of blood equivalent to the blood volume of the baby) is as effective as double volume (removal of twice blood volume of the baby) in reducing the brain damage and bilirubin levels in newborn infants with severe jaundice. Only one randomised trial fulfilled the criteria for inclusion in the analysis. This study compared single and double volume exchange transfusion in jaundice due to ABO hemolytic jaundice. The study found no significant difference in bilirubin levels following exchange. This study did not look at any long term neurodevelopmental outcome (brain damage). Based on the available data, there is insufficient evidence to support or refute the use of single volume exchange transfusion as opposed to double volume exchange transfusion in jaundiced newborns.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

BACKGROUND: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is used in neonates with isoimmune haemolytic disease to prevent exchange transfusion (ET). However, studies supporting IVIg had methodological issues.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Jaundice is one of the most common conditions requiring medical attention in newborn babies. Approximately 60% of term and 80% of preterm babies develop jaundice in the first week of life, and about 10% of breastfed babies are still jaundiced at 1 month of age. In most babies with jaundice thevre is no underlying disease, and this early jaundice (termed ‘physiological jaundice’) is generally harmless. However, there are pathological causes of jaundice in the newborn, which, although rare, need to be detected. Such pathological jaundice may co-exist with physiological jaundice.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: May 2010

Kernicterus or chronic bilirubin encephalopathy is a devastating disease. Thus, it is important to examine strategies to prevent the development of kernicterus.

Evidence Syntheses - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: October 2009

Human blood is classified according to two main systems: the ABO system and the Rhesus (Rh) system. The Rh system consists of several related proteins, the most important of which is called the Rhesus D (RhD) antigen. People who have this antigen on their red blood cells are said to be RhD positive, whereas those who do not are said to be RhD negative. If the mother is RhD negative and the fetus RhD positive, the mother may react to fetal blood cells in her circulation by developing a template for producing anti-D antibodies, a process known as RhD sensitisation. Sensitisation is unlikely to affect the current fetus but may result in haemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) during a second RhD-positive pregnancy. In its mildest form the infant has sensitised red cells, which are detectable only in laboratory tests; however, HDN may result in jaundice, anaemia, developmental problems or intrauterine death.


NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme: Executive Summaries - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: 2009

This guideline has been written within a conceptual framework which places the woman and her baby at the centre of care, appreciating that all postnatal care should be delivered in partnership with the woman and should be individualised to meet the needs of each mother-infant dyad. The guideline aims to identify the essential ‘core care’ which every woman and her baby should receive, as appropriate to their needs, during the first 6–8 weeks after birth, based upon the best evidence available.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Primary Care (UK).

Version: July 2006

The original antenatal care guideline was published by NICE in 2003. Since then a number of important pieces of evidence have become available, particularly concerning gestational diabetes, haemoglobinopathy and ultrasound, so that the update was initiated. This update has also provided an opportunity to look at a number of aspects of antenatal care: the development of a method to assess women for whom additional care is necessary (the ‘antenatal assessment tool’), information giving to women, lifestyle (vitamin D supplementation, alcohol consumption), screening for the baby (use of ultrasound for gestational age assessment and screening for fetal abnormalities, methods for determining normal fetal growth, placenta praevia), and screening for the mother (haemoglobinopathy screening, gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia and preterm labour, chlamydia).

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: March 2008

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