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Head pain or discomfort.

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Cluster headaches are excruciating headaches of extreme intensity. They can last for several hours, are usually on one side of the head only, and affect men more than women. Multiple headaches can occur over several days. Fast pain relief is important because of the intense nature of the pain with cluster headache.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Frequent episodic tension‐type headache (TTH) means having between one and 14 headaches per month. The condition causes much disability, and stops people concentrating and working properly. When headaches occur the pain usually goes away over time.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

Lumbar puncture is an invasive procedure that medical personnel use to get a sample of cerebrospinal fluid for diagnostic purposes (e.g. to diagnose meningitis or subarachnoid haemorrhage) by inserting a needle into the lower spinal region. It can also be used to inject medications such as anaesthetics and analgesics (to perform regional anaesthesia), chemotherapy or radiological contrast agents.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Lumbar puncture involves getting a sample of spinal fluid though a needle inserted into the lower back. Post‐dural puncture headache (PDPH) is the most common side effect of a lumbar puncture. The symptom of PDPH is a constant headache that gets worse when upright and improves when lying down. Lots of drugs are used to treat PDPH, so the aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of these drugs.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

A lumbar puncture is a needle inserted into the lower part of the spine to draw fluid, to test for conditions affecting the brain and spinal cord. It can also be used for treatment (for instance, for the management of pain in caesarean section).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: April 7, 2017

A lumbar puncture is a medical procedure performed with a needle and syringe used to take a sample of cerebrospinal fluid or to inject medications. Some people experience a side effect afterwards called post‐dural puncture headache (PDPH). This can be made worse by movement, sitting or standing, and can be relieved by lying down. PDPH limits people's mobility and daily activities, as well as causing unplanned expenses for both the patient and the health institution. Doctors sometimes advise their patients to remain in bed after a lumbar puncture and to drink a lot to prevent PDPH.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

The available evidence suggests that a course of acupuncture consisting of at least six treatment sessions can be a valuable option for people with frequent tension‐type headache.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

This review found that few people with two to 14 tension‐type headaches a month get good pain relief from taking paracetamol 1000 mg. There are questions about how studies of this type of headache are conducted. These questions involve the type of people chosen for the studies, and the types of outcomes reported. This limits the usefulness of the results, especially for people who just have an occasional headache.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Tension‐type headache is a common type of headache that can significantly impair people's quality of life. Individuals who experience frequent or severe headaches may benefit from medications taken before the pain starts. Two classes of medication, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin‐norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), typically used to treat depression, are evaluated in this review.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

This review found only very low quality evidence that people with 2 to 14 tension‐type headaches a month get good pain relief from taking aspirin 1000 mg or lower doses. There are questions about how studies of this type of headache are conducted. These questions involve the type of people chosen for the studies, and the types of outcomes reported. This limits the usefulness of the results, especially for people who just have an occasional headache.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

This review found that few people with 2 to 14 tension‐type headaches a month get good pain relief from taking ketoprofen 25 mg. There are questions about how studies of this type of headache are conducted. These questions involve the type of people chosen for the studies and the types of outcomes reported. This limits the usefulness of the results, especially for people who just have an occasional headache.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

Bibliographic details: Jedel E, Carlsson J.  Acupuncture in the management of tension-type headache. Physical Therapy Reviews 2005; 10(3): 131-139

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2005

Bibliographic details: Li Y, Luo C.  Acupuncture for tension-type headache: a systematic review. Chinese Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine 2005; 5(2): 117-124

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2005

Many non-specialist healthcare professionals can find the diagnosis of headache difficult, and both people with headache and their healthcare professionals can be concerned about possible serious underlying causes. This leads to variability in care and may mean that people with headaches are not always offered the most appropriate treatments. People with headache alone are unlikely to have a serious underlying disease. Comparisons between people with headache referred to secondary care and those treated in primary care show that they do not differ in terms of headache impact or disability.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: September 2012

The objective of this review was to evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of onabotulinumtoxinA injection (Botox) at doses of 155 units (U) to 195 U for the prophylaxis of headaches in adults with chronic migraine (CM).

Common Drug Review - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: July 2015

Bibliographic details: Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association Medical Advisory Panel.  Botulinum toxin for treatment of primary chronic headache disorders. Chicago, IL, USA: Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association, Technology Evaluation Center. TEC Assessment Program; 19(10). 2004

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2004

BACKGROUND: Patients present to physicians across multiple disciplines with the complaint of sinus headache. This lay term is widely accepted in the media, yet has been repeatedly questioned in the medical literature, and experts in the fields of otolaryngology, neurology, and allergy have agreed that it is an overused and often incorrect diagnosis in the majority of patients. There have been review articles and consensus panels established regarding this issue, but thus far no guidelines based purely on a review of the level of evidence provided by the literature.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

Headache is a common complaint in children, one that gives rise to considerable parental concern and fear of the presence of a space-occupying lesion. The evaluation and diagnosis of headache is very challenging for paediatricians, and neuroimaging by means of CT or MRI is often requested as part of the investigation. CT exposes children to radiation, while MRI is costly and sometimes requires sedation or general anaesthesia, especially in children younger than 6 years. This review of the literature on the value of neuroimaging in children with headache showed that the rate of pathological findings is generally low. Imaging findings that led to a change in patient management were in almost all cases reported in children with abnormal signs on neurological examination. Neuroimaging should be limited to children with a suspicious clinical history, abnormal neurological findings or other physical signs suggestive of intracranial pathology. Well-designed prospective studies are needed to better define the clinical findings that warrant neuroimaging in children with headache.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the effectiveness of conservative treatments in children with tension-type headaches (TTH).

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2005

BACKGROUND: There is good evidence in the literature supporting physiotherapy in the management of some forms of headache. Dry needling of myofascial trigger points is becoming an increasingly common approach despite a paucity of research evidence supporting its use. The purpose of this review was to determine the evidence supporting the use of dry needling in addition to conventional physiotherapy in the management of tension-type and cervicogenic headache.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

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