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Long-acting Reversible Contraception: The Effective and Appropriate Use of Long-Acting Reversible Contraception

Contraception can be divided into two broad categories: hormonal and nonhormonal. There are two categories of hormonal contraception: combined oestrogen and progestogen and progestogen-only. Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) is defined in this guideline as methods that require administering less than once per cycle or month.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health (UK).

Version: October 2005
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Contraception: Overview

The introduction of the birth control pill in the 1960s was somewhat of a revolution. A wide range of hormonal contraceptives are available nowadays. The contraceptive patch and vaginal ring are among the more recent ones.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: July 3, 2013

Programs for preventing pregnancy and disease through better condom use

Unprotected sex can result in disease and death in many areas of the world, due to sexually transmitted infections (STI) including HIV. The male condom is one of the oldest birth control methods and the earliest method that works to prevent HIV. When used correctly, condoms can provide dual protection against pregnancy and HIV/STI. We examined behavioral programs to improve condom use.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Nonoxynol‐9 for preventing vaginal acquisition of sexually transmitted infections by women from men

There is good evidence that nonoxynol‐9 does not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STI), and there is some evidence that it may be harmful by increasing the rate of genital ulceration. As such, this product cannot be recommended for STI prevention.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Screening Pelvic Examinations in Asymptomatic Average Risk Adult Women [Internet]

The routine pelvic examination has been a usual part of preventive care for women for many decades. In 2008, 63.4 million pelvic examinations were performed in the United States. Many women and providers believe that the routine pelvic exam should be included in an annual comprehensive well-woman visit. The exam consists of inspection of the external genitalia, speculum examination of the vagina and cervix, bimanual examination, and sometimes rectal or rectovaginal examination. Traditionally, the examination in the asymptomatic average risk women has been used to screen for pathology through palpation, visualization, and specimen collection.

Evidence-based Synthesis Program - Department of Veterans Affairs (US).

Version: September 2013
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Contraception: How do the contraceptive skin patch and vaginal ring compare with the pill?

The contraceptive skin patch, vaginal ring and pill are similarly effective forms of contraception. But the skin patch is associated with more side effects than the other two hormonal contraceptives.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: July 24, 2013

The effectiveness of community interventions to promote condom use in the prevention of HIV and sexually transmitted infections

Since the advent of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the 1980s, condom promotion has become one of the most widely used interventions to prevent transmission of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, despite widespread promotion of condom use globally, new cases of HIV and other STIs either remain high or continue to rise in some particular regions and settings across the world. It is believed that by modifying the environment in which people live, it is possible to improve access and use of condoms on a large scale so that the transmission of HIV and other STIs decreases. This review aimed to assess if this theory was correct.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Topical microbicides for prevention of sexually transmitted infections

Microbicide research has had disappointing outcomes during the last two decades as most microbicides have not shown evidence that they can prevent acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, a recent small preliminary study suggests that microbicides containing the antiretroviral drug tenofovir may prevent acquisition of HIV and herpes simplex virus infection in women; but further research is needed to assess the generalisability of these findings. Therefore, there is not enough evidence to recommend topical microbicides for HIV or STI prevention at present.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Behavioral Sexual Risk Reduction Counseling in Primary Care to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections: An Updated Systematic Evidence Review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force [Internet]

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are common and a source of substantial morbidity in the United States. Behavioral sexual risk reduction counseling in primary care may help prevent STIs.

Evidence Syntheses - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: September 2014
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When To Suspect Child Maltreatment

This guidance provides a summary of the clinical features associated with maltreatment (alerting features) that may be observed when a child presents to healthcare professionals. Its purpose is to raise awareness and help healthcare professionals who are not specialists in child protection to identify children who may be being maltreated. It does not give healthcare professionals recommendations on how to diagnose, confirm or disprove child maltreatment.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: July 2009
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The Guide to Clinical Preventive Services 2014: Recommendations of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

Since its inception, the USPSTF has made and maintained recommendations on dozens of clinical preventive services that are intended to prevent or reduce the risk for heart disease, cancer, infectious diseases, and other conditions and events that impact the health of children, adolescents, adults, and pregnant women. The Guide to Clinical Preventive Services 2014 includes both new and updated recommendations released from 2004–2014 in a brief, easily usable format meant for use at the point of patient care. The most up-to-date version of the recommendations, as well as the complete USPSTF recommendation statements, are available along with their supporting scientific evidence at www.USPreventiveServicesTaskForce.org.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: May 2014
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The Guide to Clinical Preventive Services 2012: Recommendations of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

Since its inception, the USPSTF has made and maintained recommendations on more than 100 clinical preventive services that are intended to prevent or reduce the risk for heart disease, cancer, infectious diseases, and other conditions and events that impact the health of children, adolescents, adults, and pregnant women. The Guide to Clinical Preventive Services 2012 includes new or updated recommendations on 64 clinical preventive services released from 2002–2012 in a brief, easily usable format meant for use at the point of patient care. Recommendations that were being updated while this edition of the Guide was being compiled, as well as the complete USPSTF recommendation statements, are available along with their supporting scientific evidence at www.USPreventiveServicesTaskForce.org.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: October 2012
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Pregnancy and Complex Social Factors: A Model for Service Provision for Pregnant Women with Complex Social Factors

This guideline aims to: identify and describe best practice for service organisation and delivery that will improve access, acceptability and use of services; identify and describe services that encourage, overcome barriers to and facilitate the maintenance of contact throughout pregnancy; describe additional consultations with and/or support and information for women with complex social factors, and their partners and families, that should be provided during pregnancy, over and above that described in the NICE guideline ‘Antenatal care: routine care for the healthy pregnant woman’ (2008) (clinical guideline 62); identify when additional midwifery care or referral to other members of the maternity team (obstetricians and other specialists) would be appropriate, and what that additional care should be.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: September 2010
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Antenatal Care: Routine Care for the Healthy Pregnant Woman

The original antenatal care guideline was published by NICE in 2003. Since then a number of important pieces of evidence have become available, particularly concerning gestational diabetes, haemoglobinopathy and ultrasound, so that the update was initiated. This update has also provided an opportunity to look at a number of aspects of antenatal care: the development of a method to assess women for whom additional care is necessary (the ‘antenatal assessment tool’), information giving to women, lifestyle (vitamin D supplementation, alcohol consumption), screening for the baby (use of ultrasound for gestational age assessment and screening for fetal abnormalities, methods for determining normal fetal growth, placenta praevia), and screening for the mother (haemoglobinopathy screening, gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia and preterm labour, chlamydia).

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: March 2008
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Factors facilitating and constraining the delivery of effective teacher training to promote health and well-being in schools: a survey of current practice and systematic review

Study found that, amongst those initial teacher training course managers surveyed, there appears to be general support for health and well-being in initial teacher training but that further research on the longer-term impact of initial teacher training around health and well-being is needed, particularly in the early career period.

Public Health Research - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: August 2013
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Improving Cultural Competence to Reduce Health Disparities [Internet]

To examine existing system-, clinic-, provider-, and individual-level interventions to improve culturally appropriate health care for people with disabilities; lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations; and racial/ethnic minority populations.

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: March 2016
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Closing the Quality Gap: A Critical Analysis of Quality Improvement Strategies (Vol. 4: Antibiotic Prescribing Behavior)

Unnecessary prescribing of antibiotics is a major problem in the US and worldwide, contributing to the problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). This review examines the effects of quality improvement strategies on reducing inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics, targeting both prescribing of antibiotics for non-bacterial illnesses (“the antibiotic treatment decision”) and prescribing of broad-spectrum antibiotics when narrow-spectrum agents are indicated (“the antibiotic selection decision”).

Technical Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: January 2006
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Donor Breast Milk Banks: The Operation of Donor Milk Bank Services

Seventeen donor breast milk banks are currently in operation in the UK. These provide donor milk to babies, including pre-term babies and babies with growth restriction.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (UK).

Version: February 2010
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The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of behavioural interventions for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections in young people aged 13–19: a systematic review and economic evaluation

Rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) continue to increase, particularly amongst young people. STIs can be either bacterial (e.g. chlamydia, gonorrhoea) or viral [e.g. human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), genital herpes, human papillomavirus]. Interventions to encourage young people to adopt and maintain safer sexual behaviour are one approach to preventing STIs and promoting sexual health. The prevention of STIs and teenage pregnancy is a high priority for health policy because of the adverse impact on individuals and on health service resources. We conducted a systematic review and economic evaluation to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of behavioural interventions for the prevention of STIs in young people.

NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme: Executive Summaries - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: 2010

Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs in Outpatient Settings: A Systematic Review [Internet]

The majority of antimicrobials prescribed to humans originate in outpatient settings. In making prescribing decisions, primary care providers are faced with patient expectations, and with patient and provider lack of awareness of antimicrobial resistance and lack of understanding of the seriousness of the antimicrobial resistance problem.

Evidence-based Synthesis Program - Department of Veterans Affairs (US).

Version: February 2014
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