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There is limited evidence that adjunctive lamotrigine reduces seizure frequency in patients with refractory primary generalized tonicclonic seizures.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Epilepsy is a disorder where recurrent seizures are caused by abnormal electrical discharges from the brain. Worldwide, phenobarbitone and phenytoin are commonly used antiepileptic drugs. This review found no evidence to suggest a difference between phenobarbitone and phenytoin for the control of the seizure types investigated. Phenobarbitone was more likely to be withdrawn than phenytoin, presumably due to adverse effects, however other factors may have influenced the rate of withdrawal of phenobarbitone in this review.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Epilepsy is a disorder in which recurrent seizures are caused by abnormal electrical discharges from the brain. We studied two seizure types in this review: generalised onset seizures in which electrical discharges begin in one part of the brain and move throughout the brain; and partial onset seizures in which the seizure is generated in and affects one part of the brain (the whole hemisphere of the brain or part of a lobe of the brain). Most seizures can be controlled by a single antiepileptic drug. Worldwide, phenytoin and valproate are commonly used antiepileptic drugs.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

Epilepsy is a disorder where seizures are caused by abnormal electrical discharges from the brain. Absence epilepsy involves seizures that cause a sudden loss of awareness. It often starts in childhood or adolescence. Three antiepileptic drugs are often used for absence epilepsy: valproate, ethosuximide and lamotrigine.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

Epileptic seizures occur in a relatively small number of patients with multiple sclerosis, but can have serious consequences. Because the cause of epileptic seizures in patients in MS may be different from that in other forms of epilepsy, it is uncertain whether patients with MS should be treated differently. We searched for studies on the treatment of epileptic seizures in patients with MS, but found none. Well designed studies that address this issue are needed.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Febrile seizures may occur in children if their temperature rises quickly and by a lot, or if they have a very high temperature. During a febrile seizure, sometimes also called a febrile convulsion, muscles in their body contract. These seizures are particularly common in toddlers: About 2 to 5 out of every 100 children will have had at least one febrile seizure before the age of five.Although febrile seizures can be alarming, they are usually harmless. Children usually recover fully within about an hour of the seizure. But it is still a good idea to see a doctor and have the child examined afterwards.When children have a febrile seizure, they become unconscious and the muscles in their body contract. Their arms and legs may twitch or their body may become unnaturally stiff and rigid. Their eyes often roll back, or they may have dilated pupils or a fixed gaze. Sometimes their lips or face turn blue. Their arms and legs might relax quite suddenly again.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: November 17, 2016

We reviewed the evidence around the use of antiepileptic medication to prevent seizures after intracranial venous thrombosis.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Chronic subdural haematoma (CSH) is a serious condition in which blood collects under the thickest membrane that surrounds the brain, known as the dura mater. CSH is usually caused by minor head injuries in which a vein has torn, and this happens in particular in older patients and patients with other brain problems. A CSH may cause seizures which can be dangerous. Some doctors give patients anti‐epileptic drugs such as phenytoin or phenobarbital to try to prevent seizures. However, most patients with CSH will not have seizures and anti‐epileptic drugs can have serious side effects.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Plain language summary will be included with future review update.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Carbamazepine is the most commonly used drug to treat partial epileptic seizures. Oxcarbazepine is a newer drug that was developed with the intention to be as effective as carbamazepine but to cause fewer side effects. In this systematic review, we summarise three studies in which oxcarbazepine and carbamazepine treatment were compared directly. We found that both drugs appear to be equally effective and to cause side effects equally often. Significantly fewer patients on carbamazepine developed nausea or vomiting during treatment.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Febrile seizures (fits) can be classified as simple or complex. Complex febrile seizures are associated with a high temperature (fever), last longer than 15 minutes, occur more than once within 24 hours, and are confined to one side of the child's body. It is common in some countries for doctors to recommend an electroencephalograph (EEG), which records electrical activity in the brain, on children with complex febrile seizures. The EEG may help identify why the seizures occur and predict the risk of future seizures.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

The purpose of this review was to examine whether the routine use of antiepileptic medication in preventing epileptic seizures following subarachnoid haemorrhage can be justified. This includes patients who have not yet had a seizure (primary prevention) and those who have already had one (secondary prevention).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Seizures (epileptic attacks) after stroke are a major clinical problem. It is unclear whether antiepileptic drugs are effective in preventing seizures after stroke in adults. This review searched in August 2013 for high quality evidence to help clarify this problem. We found only one high quality clinical trial that looked at whether antiepileptic drugs may be more effective than placebo in preventing seizures after stroke.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Up to 60% of people with brain tumors may present with seizures, or may have a seizure for the first time after diagnosis or neurosurgery. The risk of a seizure varies with the tumor type and its location in the brain. Seizures are an added burden with a negative impact on quality of life, affecting activities of daily living, independence, work, and driving. Many doctors believe that antiepileptic drugs are effective and necessary to prevent seizures (seizure prophylaxis), but this practice has been put into question. Antiepileptic drugs can have adverse effects and they interact with steroids and chemotherapy.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Seizures are a common symptom of both primary and secondary brain tumours and can cause significant morbidity. The mainstay of treatment for seizures in adults with brain tumours is medical therapy with antiepileptic drugs. This review appraises the evidence for a range of commonly used antiepileptic drugs for the treatment of seizures in adults with brain tumours.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Viral encephalitis is characterised by inflammation and swelling of the brain and is caused by viral infection. Seizures can occur both during viral encephalitis and as a later consequence following resolution of the infection. Patients who have seizures during encephalitis are more likely to die or have a disability; some may also develop prolonged or repeated seizures, which can be very difficult to treat. As not all patients will develop seizures, it is unclear whether the use of antiepileptic drugs in patients with viral encephalitis before they have seizures can prevent further seizures and improve their outcome. It is also not clear whether the use of these drugs after the first seizure can prevent the occurrence of further seizures and long‐term epilepsy.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have been used in trials to prevent seizures occurring after surgery in people with no previous history of epilepsy. A small number of trials have compared different AED treatments against each other, while others have compared AEDs to a placebo or no treatment group.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Seizures occurring with a fever in children are common and affect about one in thirty under the age of six years. On average, one out of three children who have had a febrile seizure will have at least one more. We reviewed the evidence about the effect of drugs to prevent seizures (antiepileptics), drugs to lower temperature (antipyretics) and zinc on children with febrile seizures.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: February 22, 2017

This review appraises the evidence for clobazam monotherapy for the treatment of new‐onset or untreated partial‐onset or generalized‐onset seizures.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Epilepsy is a disorder where unexpected electrical discharges from the brain cause seizures. Most seizures can be controlled by a single antiepileptic drug but sometimes seizures do not respond to drugs. Some people require more than one antiepileptic medication to control their seizures, especially if these originate from one area of the brain (partial epilepsy), instead of involving the whole brain.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

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