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Study finds that faecal calprotectin can be a highly sensitive way of detecting inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); in most cases, a negative calprotectin test result rules out IBD, thereby sparing most people with irritable bowel syndrome from having to undergo invasive investigations, such as colonoscopy.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: November 2013

The authors concluded that colonic J-pouch improved functional outcomes compared with straight coloanal anastomosis, without any increase in post-operative complications; coloplasty and J-pouch appeared to have similar effects, but further research is required. The pooling of studies of diverse study design and the limited quality assessment of the included studies weaken the strength of the conclusions.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2006

This guideline is relevant to all healthcare professionals who come into contact with patients with colorectal cancer or suspected of having colorectal cancer, as well as to the patients themselves and their carers. It is also expected that the guideline will be of value to those involved in clinical governance in both primary and secondary care to help ensure that arrangements are in place to deliver appropriate care for the population covered by this guideline.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Cancer (UK).

Version: November 2011

This guideline intends to show the place of both new and established treatments in the wider care pathway for Crohn's disease. This will be useful for clinicians and people with Crohn's disease because new drugs have been licensed for Crohn's disease in the last decade. The guideline also deals with those medications which are unlicensed for treatment of the condition, but which have been used in this way (off-label) for many years and their role is recognised in other NICE documents as well as the British National Formulary. They include azathioprine, mercaptopurine and methotrexate. The guideline aims to help improve the care offered to people with Crohn's disease and provide information about the clinical and cost effectiveness of potential care pathways. Management of Crohn's disease in specific populations (for example, in pregnancy) may require special consideration.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: October 10, 2012

This review concluded that rectal irrigation may have a role in the management of functional bowel disorders, but further research is needed to confirm this. The findings of this review should be interpreted with caution, given questions about the review methodology and the limitations of the evidence presented.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2007

The conclusion that operative techniques for treating total colonic aganglionosis were comparable in terms of mortality, morbidity, enterocolitis and functional outcome should be regarded with some caution, due to a lack of good-quality evidence and presence of heterogeneity in the study findings and methodological weaknesses in the review.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2009

This review assessed the function and complications of a colonic J-pouch compared with straight coloanal anastomosis. The authors concluded that there was little difference between the two interventions, but data appeared to favour the use of colonic J-pouches. Given some methodological limitations and insufficient reporting of study details, the reliability of this conclusion is unclear.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2007

It is almost 200 years since James Parkinson described the major symptoms of the disease that came to bear his name. Slowly but surely our understanding of the disease has improved and effective treatment has been developed, but Parkinson’s disease remains a huge challenge to those who suffer from it and to those involved in its management. In addition to the difficulties common to other disabling neurological conditions, the management of Parkinson’s disease must take into account the fact that the mainstay of pharmacological treatment, levodopa, can eventually produce dyskinesia and motor fluctuation. Furthermore, there are a number of agents besides levodopa that can help parkinsonian symptoms, and there is the enticing but unconfirmed prospect that other treatments might protect against worsening neurological disability. Thus, a considerable degree of judgement is required in tailoring individual therapy and in timing treatment initiation. It is hoped that this guideline on Parkinson’s disease will be of considerable help to those involved at all levels in these difficult management decisions. The guideline has been produced using standard NICE methodology and is therefore based on a thorough search for best evidence.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Chronic Conditions (UK).

Version: 2006

Coeliac disease is an autoimmune condition associated with chronic inflammation of the small intestine, which can lead to malabsorption of nutrients. Dietary proteins, known as glutens, which are present in wheat, barley and rye activate an abnormal mucosal immune response. Clinical and histological improvements usually follow when gluten is excluded from the diet.

NICE Guideline - Internal Clinical Guidelines Team (UK).

Version: September 2015

Crohn's disease (CD) is a severe, lifelong disease characterised by inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa. The impact on patients and society is high as ill health can be lifelong and can negatively affect patients' quality of life. Costs to the NHS are high, particularly for patients needing hospitalisation. Conventional treatment pathways are complex. More recently, a group of drugs called tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors (anti-TNF-α agents) have been evaluated for their effectiveness in CD. One of these, infliximab, is currently recommended by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE; 2002) for patients with severe, active CD where patients are refractory to or intolerant of conventional treatment.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: February 2011

Study finds that there is a fine balance between the benefits and risks of regular aspirin use in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: September 2013

The guideline covers adults and children (from birth) with lower urinary tract dysfunction resulting from neurological disease or injury.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: August 2012

This study of the use of therapeutic monitoring of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors in the management of Crohn’s disease concluded that more evidence is required to tell us how the tests and the treatment options determined by the test results can benefit the management of patients.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: November 2016

Study found that for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs had cost per quality-adjusted life-year values greater than the thresholds stated by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence and could not be considered cost-effective.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: April 2016

In 2003, NICE first issued guidance on the use of routine preoperative tests for elective surgery (NICE CG3). The guideline evaluated the practice of routinely performing preoperative diagnostic tests for elective surgery in healthy and comorbid populations.

NICE Guideline - National Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: April 2016

This systematic review aimed to assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of elemental nutrition for maintenance of remission in patients with Crohn’s Disease (CD). No cost-effectiveness evidence was found. Limited evidence indicates potential benefits of elemental nutrition against no intervention in the maintenance of remission and prevention of relapse in adult patients with CD. There was a lack or insufficient evidence on adverse events and complications. The findings warrant cautious interpretation given the limitations of the evidence and the risk of bias in individual studies. Future large and long-term randomised trials are warranted to draw more definitive conclusions.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: March 2015

Gallstone disease is the term used in this guideline to refer to the presence of stones in the gallbladder or common bile duct and the symptoms and complications they cause. The following aspects of gallstone disease are included in this guideline: Asymptomatic gallbladder stones; symptomatic gallbladder stones, including biliary colic, acute cholecystitis, Mirrizi syndrome, and Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis; common bile duct stones, including biliary colic, cholangitis, obstructive jaundice and gallstone pancreatitis; other complications of gallstones (such as gastric outlet obstruction, or gallstone ileus) and other conditions related to the gallbladder (such as gallbladder cancer, or biliary dyskinesia) are not included in this guideline.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - Internal Clinical Guidelines Team (UK).

Version: October 2014

This guideline covers identifying, diagnosing and assessing disease severity in adults, children and young people with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It also covers both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments, disease monitoring and the risk of extra-hepatic conditions associated with NAFLD.

NICE Guideline - National Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: July 2016

The review found that according to post-2000 studies, ileo-pouch anal anastomosis was associated with pouch failure in 4.3% of cases, pelvic sepsis in 7.5% and severe daytime faecal incontinence in 6.1%. Limitations in the review, particularly differences between the studies and failure to assess study quality, mean that these conclusions may not be reliable.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

Without early diagnosis and treatment, an acute episode of constipation can lead to anal fissure and become chronic. By the time the child or young person is seen they may be in a vicious cycle. Children and young people and their families are often given conflicting advice and practice is inconsistent, making treatment potentially less effective and frustrating for all concerned. Early identification of constipation and effective treatment can improve outcomes for children and young people. This guideline provides strategies based on the best available evidence to support early identification, positive diagnosis and timely, effective management. Implementation of this guideline will provide a consistent, coordinated approach and will improve outcomes for children and young people.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: 2010

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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