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Custom‐made foot orthoses for the treatment of foot pain 

Decreases foot pain after 3 months compared with fake foot orthoses.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

Moulded foot insoles for adults with pain around the knee cap

Pain around the knee cap is a common problem. The pain may be brought on or made worse by day to day or sporting/exercise activities. Pain around the knee cap can have many different causes, such as the way the knee cap glides over the bones or because of knee overuse. Several different treatment options are available. Foot orthoses are specially moulded devices fitted into footwear. They are believed to be helpful because they might help improve the alignment of the leg bones.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Creams, lotions and gels (topical treatments) for fungal infections of the skin and nails of the foot

We found lots of evidence to show fungal skin infections of the skin of the feet (athlete's foot or tinea pedis) are effectively managed by over the counter topical antifungal creams, lotions and gels. The most effective topical agent was terbinafine. Other topical agents such as azoles, ciclopiroxolamine, butenafine, tolnaftate and undecanoate were also effective in curing athlete's foot.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Interventions for the prevention and treatment of pes cavus (high‐arched foot deformity)

Pes cavus is characterised by an excessively high medial longitudinal arch (the arch on the inside of the foot) and is typically defined as a high‐arched or supinated foot type. Population based studies suggest the prevalence of pes cavus is approximately 10%, and its cause is primarily neuromuscular (for example Charcot‐Marie‐Tooth disease) or idiopathic (unknown) in nature. It has been estimated that 60% of people with cavus feet will experience chronic foot pain at some time in their life, most commonly beneath the forefoot (for example metatarsalgia, sesamoiditis) or heel (for example plantar fasciitis). Conditions such as these are thought to be the result of abnormal pressure distribution across the sole of the foot during walking. Many conservative therapies and surgical procedures have been recommended for cavus‐related foot pain. In particular, foot orthoses (aids applied and worn on the outside of the body to support the bony structures) customised to an individual's foot shape are increasingly prescribed by podiatrists, physiotherapists, orthopaedic surgeons and rehabilitation specialists for people with pes cavus pain. This updated review analysed four relevant trials, but only one fully met the inclusion criteria. This trial with 154 adults showed that custom‐made foot orthoses can reduce and redistribute plantar foot pressure and subsequently decrease foot pain by approximately 75%. Some biomechanical outcomes, such as pressure distribution, improve with custom‐made foot orthoses and footwear, but many other biomechanical outcomes, such as foot alignment or muscle activity, do not improve with botulinum toxin or off‐the‐shelf foot orthoses, respectively. More research is needed to determine the effectiveness of other interventions for people with painful high‐arched feet.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Insoles for the prevention and treatment of back pain

Back pain is one of the most common health problems in the industrialized world, with estimates that between 60% and 85% of the population will experience it at some point in their lives. Laboratory trials suggest that the use of shoe insoles might be beneficial in the prevention and treatment of back pain, by absorbing the shock of the foot striking the ground and supporting the foot in proper alignment. There are a variety of insoles available.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Massage, reflexology and other manual methods for managing pain in labour

The pain of labour can be intense, with tension, anxiety and fear making it worse. Many women would like to labour without using drugs such as narcotics or  epidurals, and turn to complementary therapies to help them manage the pain of labour. Many complementary therapies are tried and in this review we have looked to see if massage, reflexology and other manual healing methods are effective. Other complementary therapies like acupuncture, mind‐body techniques, hypnosis and aromatherapy have been studied in other reviews. Massage involves manipulating the body’s soft tissues and it can be done by the midwife or partner. It helps women relax and so reduces the tension which increases pain in labour. Reflexology is gentle manipulation or pressing on certain parts of the foot to produce an effect elsewhere in the body. Other manual healing methods include osteopathy, shiatsu and zero balancing etc.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Physiotherapy for pain and disability in adults with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) types I and II

Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a painful and disabling condition. Most commonly it affects a person's arm and hand or leg and foot and may occur after a traumatic injury. There are two types of CRPS: CRPS I in which there is no nerve injury, and CRPS II in which there is a nerve injury. Guidelines recommend physiotherapy, which could include different kinds of exercise therapy or electrotherapy for instance, along with other medical treatments for treating the pain and disability associated with CRPS. However, we do not know how well these treatments work.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Exercise therapy for adolescents and adults with pain behind or around the kneecap (patellofemoral pain)

Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is a common knee problem, which particularly affects adolescents and young adults. PFPS is characterised by retropatellar (behind the kneecap) or peripatellar (around the kneecap) pain. It is often referred to as anterior knee pain. The pain mostly occurs when load is put on the muscles that extend the leg when climbing stairs, squatting, running, cycling or sitting with bent knees. Exercise therapy is often prescribed for this condition.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Botulinum toxin injections as a treatment for low‐back pain and sciatica

Back pain is a common symptom affecting roughly 50% of the population every year. For the majority of people, back pain goes away gradually ‐ usually within several weeks.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Massage for mechanical neck pain

Neck pain is common and can limit a person's ability to participate in normal daily activities. Massage is a widely used treatment for neck pain. In this review, it was defined as touching or manipulating the soft tissues surrounding the neck with the hand, foot, arm or elbow. There are a number of different types of massage. This review included studies that looked at Traditional Chinese massage, ischaemic compression, self‐administered ischaemic pressure using a J‐knob cane, conventional Western massage and occipital release, among other techniques. It did not include studies that examined techniques such as Reiki or Polarity.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Pain after surgery

Nowadays no one needs to put up with severe pain after surgery. There are a number of different options to relieve postoperative pain. Patients can sometimes control their infusions themselves to relieve pain. Up to five million people in Germany need pain treatment after surgery each year. Any type of surgery can lead to postoperative pain. Most of the time the more difficult operations will cause more pain symptoms than minor surgery. Severe or lingering pain can hinder recovery after surgery, so it is important to tell your nurses or doctors whenever you have pain.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: May 21, 2014

Pregnancy and birth: Managing pain during childbirth

Women who are about to give birth often have mixed feelings – especially if it is their first child. Many of them wonder: Will the pain be as bad as everyone says? How will I cope with it? Are there alternatives to painkillers?Giving birth to a child is one of life’s most intense experiences. Towards the end of pregnancy, when everyday life has become more difficult, most women cannot wait to finally have the baby. The anticipation of that moment is often mixed with feelings of excitement and anxiety. They will have heard a lot of stories and opinions about what happens – or should happen – during childbirth. And they will have seen quite a few dramatic birth scenes in TV shows and movies.Some women have already seen films about birth in a childbirth class or on the internet. But when it is right about to happen, it is still uncharted territory – no one actually knows beforehand how labor will really feel and how well the birth will go.It is not possible to plan everything that happens during childbirth. Women have to be ready for unexpected turns. Having a very specific idea of what the birth will be like could make the actual birth disappointing. Being well-informed is just as important as getting support from others when preparing for the birth. Partners or other people who would like to be there during the birth can also provide the best support if they are well-informed.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: October 16, 2013

Cancer Pain (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about pain as a complication of cancer or its treatment. Approaches to the management and treatment of cancer-associated pain are discussed.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: September 23, 2016

Non‐surgical interventions for flat feet in children

This summary of a Cochrane review presents what we know from research about the effect of non‐surgical treatments for pes planus (flat feet) in children.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

What are the treatment options for ankle sprains?

If someone sprains their ankle, the ankle is first immobilized (kept still) for a while using an ankle brace or bandage. But it is usually possible to start doing rehabilitation exercises quite early on. Painkillers can be used to relieve pain. Surgery is only rarely needed.Sometimes one awkward step is all it takes for your foot to twist sideways, resulting in an ankle sprain. An ankle sprain is where the ligaments around the ankle are overstretched or torn. Severe sprains can make the ankle joint unstable.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: April 23, 2014

Ankle sprains: Overview

Ankle sprains are among the most common of injuries. When an ankle is twisted, the ligaments are overstretched. In the worst case, they might tear. Small blood vessels tear too, which is what causes the swelling around the ankle. Read about first aid for sprained ankles, the treatment options, and what can help stabilize the joint again.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: April 23, 2014

Slipped disk: Overview

When most people hear "slipped disk" they think of very sudden, severe back pain. But most slipped disks go unnoticed and do not have to be treated. What happens if a slipped disk causes pain and how do you know whether you should see a doctor?

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: October 9, 2014

Interventions for congenital talipes equinovarus (clubfoot)

The purpose of this review was to assess treatments for congenital talipes equinovarus (clubfoot).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Braces and orthoses for osteoarthritis of the knee

This summary of a Cochrane review presents what we know from research about the effects of braces and foot/ankle orthoses in the treatment of patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. We searched for evidence up to March 2014. We found 13 studies (n = 1356) and included in this update six additional studies (n = 529 participants).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Slipped disk: Non-surgical treatment options

Most people with a slipped disk are offered “conservative” treatment, meaning that the treatment does not involve surgery. This mainly involves exercise, relaxation and positioning, painkillers or local anesthetics, and manual and physical therapy.A slipped disk does not always cause symptoms, but it may cause severe back pain. A slipped disk in the lumbar vertebrae can press on the sciatic nerve and cause pain that often extends through one leg and down into the foot. Most people recover from a slipped disk within six weeks without treatment. Until then there a number of treatment options that aim to help relieve the pain and improve mobility.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: October 25, 2013

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