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Tooth decay is a significant health problem worldwide, affecting not only the vast majority of adults but also 60% to 90% of children. Levels of tooth decay vary between and within countries, but it is generally true that children in lower socioeconomic groups (measured by income, education and employment) have more tooth decay. Over time, untreated tooth decay causes progressive destruction of the tops of teeth (crowns); this is often accompanied by severe pain. Repairing and replacing decayed teeth is extremely costly in terms of time and money and is a major drain on the resources of healthcare systems.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

This review found there was a possibility of an adverse effect of high fluoride exposure on children’s neurodevelopment. The varied and observational nature of the included studies meant that there was a high risk of bias due to confounding factors, so the results may not be reliable. Therefore, the authors’ cautious conclusions and recommendations for further research are appropriate.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

This guideline has been developed to advise on supporting people with dementia and their carers in health and social care. The guideline recommendations have been developed by a multidisciplinary team of health and social care professionals, a person with dementia, carers and guideline methodologists after careful consideration of the best available evidence. It is intended that the guideline will be useful to practitioners and service commissioners in providing and planning high-quality care for those with dementia while also emphasising the importance of the experience of care for people with dementia and carers.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).

Version: 2007

A 2004 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) review recommended that primary care clinicians prescribe oral fluoride supplementation to preschool children over the age of 6 months whose primary water source is deficient in fluoride but found insufficient evidence to recommend for or against risk assessment of preschool children by primary care clinicians for the prevention of dental caries.

Evidence Syntheses - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: May 2014

Expert-reviewed information summary about oral complications, such as mucositis and salivary gland dysfunction, that occur in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy or radiation therapy to the head and neck.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: December 16, 2016

The study found that bisphosphonates are effective in preventing fragility fractures. However, the benefit-to-risk ratio in the lowest risk patients may be debatable given the low absolute quality-adjusted life-year gains and the potential for adverse events.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: October 2016

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of bladder cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: June 5, 2017

Bladder cancer is the seventh most common cancer in the UK, with just over 10,000 cases diagnosed each year (CRUK, 2013a). These are unevenly split between men (fourth most common cancer) and women (11th most common cancer).

NICE Guideline - National Collaborating Centre for Cancer (UK).

Version: February 2015

This review has been conducted to assess the effects of using a toothpaste containing triclosan (an antibacterial ingredient) plus copolymer (an ingredient to reduce the amount of triclosan that is washed away by rinsing or saliva) plus fluoride (a mineral that prevents tooth decay) compared with using a fluoride toothpaste (without triclosan/copolymer) for oral health.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Breast cancer is the most common cancer for women in England and Wales, with about 37,000 new cases diagnosed and 11,000 deaths recorded in England and Wales each year. In men breast cancer is rare, with about 270 cases diagnosed, and 70 deaths in England and Wales each year. Of these new cases in women and men, around 10% are diagnosed in the advanced stages, when the tumour has spread significantly within the breast or to other organs of the body. In addition, there is a significant number of women who have been previously treated with curative intent who subsequently develop either a local recurrence or metastases. Over recent years there have been important developments in the investigation and management of these patients including new chemotherapy, and biological and hormonal agents. There is some evidence of practice variation across the country and of patchy availability of certain treatments and procedures. A clinical guideline will help to address these issues and offer guidance on best practice.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Cancer (UK).

Version: February 2009

Recipients of a kidney transplants have a pre‐existing increase in bone fragility resulting from kidney disease. Bone mineral density decreases rapidly in the first year after engraftment and there is continued bone loss through the period of transplantation. The incidence of fracture following successful transplantation is greater than 2% per annum. Bone loss and fracture risk are significantly higher than both the general and dialysis population. This study examines the benefits and risks of treatments used to reduce bone disease following kidney transplantation. Twenty‐four trials (12,99 patients) were included. No individual intervention (bisphosphonate, vitamin D sterol or calcitonin) has been shown in randomised controlled trials to reduce fracture risk after kidney transplantation. Meta analysis of all available such trials combined, however, shows that any intervention (bisphosphonate, vitamin D sterol, or calcitonin) for bone disease in kidney transplant recipients does reduce the risk of fracture in this population. These agents also provide a significant improvement in bone mineral density when given after transplantation, although the clinical significance of this is uncertain due to the lack of validation in bone densitometry in chronic kidney disease. Bisphosphonates have greater efficacy to preserve bone mineral density than vitamin D sterols in head‐to‐head trials.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

The management of myeloma is complex and challenging. It increasingly involves the use of expensive drugs. The guideline will aim to raise standards nationally while allowing clinical flexibility and defining a common pathway for patients at various stages of their illness, and of different ages and levels of fitness. Although a consistent approach to management is desirable, it needs to reflect the very different groups of patients with myeloma from the fit and suitable for transplant, fairly fit but not suitable for transplant to patients who are extremely frail and/or unwell.

NICE Guideline - National Collaborating Centre for Cancer (UK).

Version: February 2016

Serious, disabling, and life-threatening chronic health conditions adversely affect the health of aging childhood cancer survivors. Learn about the cardiovascular, cognitive, psychosocial, digestive, endocrine, immune, musculoskeletal, reproductive, and urinary late effects and subsequent neoplasms that contribute to a high burden of morbidity in childhood cancer survivors.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: September 28, 2017

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of childhood acute myeloid leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and other myeloproliferative disorders.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: April 4, 2017

The quality of nutrition-related systematic reviews (SR) is an unstudied but important factor affecting their usefulness.

Technical Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: March 2009

In the past 30–50 years, the natural history of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children has changed as a result of the introduction of antibiotics and improvements in health care. This change has contributed to uncertainty about the most appropriate and effective way to diagnose and treat UTI in children and whether or not investigations and follow-up are justified.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: August 2007

The purpose of this project was to provide national guidance on the optimal use of 99mTc during a situation of reduced supply. To accomplish this, our objective at CADTH was:

Optimal Use Report - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: 2012

This guideline has been developed to advise on the identification, treatment and management of the eating disorders anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and related conditions. The guideline recommendations have been developed by a multidisciplinary group of health care professionals, patients and their representatives, and guideline methodologists after careful consideration of the best available evidence. It is intended that the guideline will be useful to clinicians and service commissioners in providing and planning high quality care for those with eating disorders while also emphasising the importance of the experience of care for patients and carers.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).

Version: 2004

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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