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Cycling is a healthy and popular activity for people of all ages. Crashes involving bicyclists are, however, common and often involve motor vehicles. Head injuries are responsible for around three‐quarters of deaths among bicyclists involved in crashes. Facial injuries are also common. The review found that wearing a helmet reduced the risk of head or brain injury by approximately two‐thirds or more, regardless of whether the crash involved a motor vehicle. Injuries to the mid and upper face were also markedly reduced, although helmets did not prevent lower facial injuries.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Facial fractures with bone displacement are a frequent occurrence in individuals who have suffered trauma. They may cause functional and cosmetic problems. The management should include repositioning and immobilising the fractured bones to restore the functional and cosmetic properties of injured bone(s). Conventionally, titanium plates are used to immobilise the displaced segments and are recognised as the 'gold standard'. Recently, bioresorbable plates have been introduced as an alternative with the advantage of omitting, in some cases, the necessity for the second operation to remove the metal plate. However, there are uncertainties about the stability of resorbable fixations, the length of time required for their resorption, the possibility of foreign body reactions, and with some of the technical difficulties experienced with resorbable plates. The review authors did not identify any randomised controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of resorbable fixations with conventional titanium plates. However, three ongoing trials were identified two of which were stopped before completion mainly because of, in one trial, the complications in the resorbable group. The findings of these aborted trials do not suggest that resorbable plates are as effective as titanium plates. Further randomised controlled trials should be well designed and reported according to the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement (http://www.consort‐statement.org/).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

Burn injuries are an important health problem. Burns frequently occur on the head or neck. These areas are central to a person's identity and play a vital role in communication. Other basic abilities such as hearing, smelling and breathing may become affected as a direct result of a facial burn. The authors of this Cochrane review wanted to assess the effects of topical (surface) treatments for wound healing in facial burns. Examples of topical treatments are antimicrobial creams and ointments and biological, or bioengineered (artificial), skin substitutes.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Participating in insufficient amounts of physical activity leads to an increased risk of a number of chronic diseases, and physical and mental health problems. Regular physical activity should be a goal for all adults and can provide social, emotional and physical health benefits. The majority of adults are not active at recommended levels. We included a total of 10 studies recruiting 6292 apparently healthy adults in this review. The findings of the review indicate that interventions can successfully support adults' attempts to become active and fitter, for example with personal counselling and advice, feedback and offering choices of exercise, and supervision. Outcomes are improved if the intervention comprises a specified type of physical activity and is supervised by a non‐health professional using a combination of group and individual approaches. New physical activity can be maintained for up to at least one year and does not increase the risk of falls or exercise related injuries. More research is needed to establish which methods of exercise promotion work best in the long term to encourage specific groups of people to be more physically active.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Motorcyclists are at high risk in traffic crashes, particularly for head injury. A review of studies concluded that helmets reduce the risk of head injury by around 69% and death by around 42%. There is, so far, insufficient evidence to compare the effectiveness of different types of helmet. Some studies have suggested that helmets may protect against facial injury and that they have no effect on neck injury, but more research is required for a conclusive answer. The review supports the view that helmet use should be actively encouraged worldwide for rider safety.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

Fractures of the condylar process of the mandible (lower jaw) are common. Two treatment options are available: either closed treatment (without surgery) or open reduction (involving surgery). Complications are associated with both treatment modalities. With a closed approach the complications include disturbances in the way the teeth meet, facial asymmetry, chronic pain and reduced mobility of the lower jaw. With an open approach the complications include a scar on the overlying skin and also the possibility of temporary paralysis of the nerve supplying some of the facial muscles involved in smiling and eye opening/closing. Currently there is much controversy regarding the most appropriate method for the management of fractured mandibular condyles. This review revealed that there is a lack of high quality evidence for the effectiveness of either approach, and that there is a need for further research to help clinicians and patients to make informed choices of treatment options.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

This review was carried out to assess how effective different treatments are for treating permanent front teeth that have been damaged and then fused to the bone (ankylosed front teeth).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Injuring your front teeth during childhood is common. One of the most severe injuries occurs when the tooth is knocked totally out of the mouth (avulsed). Often the best option is to replant the tooth as quickly as possible. This is true only for permanent teeth. Once replanted the tooth can heal in two ways if managed correctly. Ideally the ligament around the root reforms and the tooth can be expected to last as long as any other tooth, this is known as 'periodontal healing'. When there is too much damage to the ligament, healing occurs by bony replacement and the tooth is replaced by bone and lost over a few years. This is called 'bony healing'.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

A chronic subdural haematoma (CSDH) is the slow accumulation of blood between the brain and the membrane that surrounds it. CSDH is a common type of brain (intracranial) haematoma and occurs more frequently in older people. Up to 75% of CSDHs are caused by trauma to the head, though this trauma can be trivial, with no loss of consciousness, vomiting or seizures, or any other post‐trauma symptoms. Symptoms of CSDH depend upon the size of the haematoma and the parts of the brain on which it exerts pressure, but may include confusion or coma; memory problems; difficulty speaking, swallowing or walking; drowsiness; headaches; seizures; and weakness or numbness of limbs and face.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Riding a bike, doing home improvements - there are many situations where you can get something into your eye. If a foreign object gets into the eye, it can injure the cornea. Mild corneal erosions usually heal within a couple of hours or days. But how do you remove a foreign object from your eye? And when do you need to see a doctor?

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: May 7, 2014

Silicone gel sheeting is a soft, self‐adhesive sheet that is applied to intact skin. It is thought to prevent the development of new abnormal scars and also to treat existing scars. This review aimed to assess the evidence on whether silicone gel sheeting prevents the development of abnormal scars in people with newly healed wounds or if it is an effective way to treat existing abnormal scars. Most of the studies identified were of poor quality and it is unclear whether silicone gel sheeting helps prevent abnormal scarring, or is effective in treating existing abnormal scars.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Erysipelas or cellulitis can develop if bacteria enter the skin through cuts or sores. Both infections make your skin swell and become red, warm and tender. Provided the right treatment is started early enough, these bacterial skin infections usually clear up without any lasting effects.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: June 3, 2015

We aimed to find out if personalised advice to reduce heavy drinking provided using a computer or mobile device is better than nothing or printed information. We also compared advice provided using a computer or mobile device to advice given in a face‐to‐face conversation. The main outcome was how much alcohol people drank.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

The treatment of cancer may cause health problems (late effects) for childhood cancer survivors months or years after successful treatment has ended. Get information about the long-term physical, psychological and social effects of treatment for childhood cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: April 25, 2017

Injuries are the leading cause of childhood death in industrialised countries. People living in disadvantaged circumstances are at greater risk of injury than those who are more advantaged. This review examined whether home safety education and providing safety equipment reduced injuries and increased safety behaviours and safety equipment use. It also looked at whether home safety education was more or less effective in disadvantaged families. The review authors found 98 studies involving 2,605,044 participants which reported many different safety behaviours, but relatively few studies included information on injuries.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

How do we know whether a particular treatment really works? How reliable is the evidence? And how do we ensure that research into medical treatments best meets the needs of patients? These are just a few of the questions addressed in a lively and informative way in Testing Treatments. Brimming with vivid examples, Testing Treatments will inspire both patients and professionals.

Pinter & Martin.

Version: 2011

The main question addressed by this review is how effective are different treatments and what are the best timings for these treatments following accidental damage during surgery to the nerves that supply sensation to the tongue, lower lip and chin.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Telemedicine uses telecommunication systems to deliver health care at a distance. This method of delivering health care may improve patient health outcomes, access to health care and reduce costs. It is important to understand the impact that care at a distance via telemedicine might have on patients, healthcare professionals and the organisation of care.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

We reviewed evidence on the effectiveness of high‐flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy in supporting children's breathing. We found 11 studies in children.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Raising a child with ADHD is not easy. Family life is often dominated by conflicts and sometimes there is additional pressure from other people too. Teachers, friends, family members or other parents often assume that the child’s behavior is a result of the wrong kind of parenting. But many parents of children with ADHD gradually develop strategies to help them cope better in everyday life.Raising a child with ADHD can be very challenging. It demands a lot of attention from parents. The child’s behavior often leads to tension within the family or trouble at school. Children with ADHD are abnormally impulsive and restless. They don’t follow rules or instructions and are sometimes aggressive. So it is perfectly normal for parents to sometimes feel helpless, annoyed or even furious, as well as worrying about their child. But it is important to remember that the child is not behaving that way on purpose and that their behavior has nothing to do with their character.Over time, many families come up with strategies to help them cope with everyday situations. There are various strategies to help plan the day and avoid surprises, or to at least be ready for them. Some parents are reluctant to lay down clear rules because they don’t want to be too authoritarian or strict. But the aim of these strategies is to help create an environment in which the child can cope better.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: September 9, 2015

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