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Surgery to remove tumour so that it is not visible with the naked eye prolongs survival in women with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer

Epithelial ovarian cancer is a disease in which malignant cells form in the tissue covering the ovary. It accounts for about 90% of ovarian cancers; the remaining 10% arise from germ cells or the sex cords and stroma of the ovary. Women with epithelial ovarian cancer that has returned after primary treatment (recurrent disease) may need secondary surgery to remove all or part of the cancer. When ovarian cancer recurs after more than six months it is considered suitable for further treatment with platinum chemotherapy (platinum sensitive).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Anaesthesia with injectable versus gaseous anaesthetic agents for rapid awakening following surgery for brain tumour

Review question: We reviewed and compared evidence on the usefulness of injectable and gaseous techniques for rapid awakening from anaesthesia in people undergoing surgery for brain tumour.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

Outdoor workers' sun-related knowledge, attitudes and protective behaviours: a systematic review of cross-sectional and interventional studies

Sun protection is a major concern for outdoor workers as they are particularly exposed to solar ultraviolet radiation and therefore at increased risk of developing some forms of skin cancer, cataract and ocular neoplasm. In order to provide an overview of outdoor workers' sun-related knowledge, attitudes and protective behaviours as reported in the literature and to evaluate the effectiveness of sun-safety education programmes in outdoor occupational settings, we conducted a systematic review of the literature by searching three electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO) from their inception up to 25 April 2012. An extensive hand search complemented the database searches. We identified 34 relevant articles on descriptive studies and 18 articles on interventional studies. Considerable numbers of outdoor workers were found to have sun-sensitive skin types; sunburn rates per season ranged from 50% to 80%. Data concerning outdoor workers' sun-related knowledge and attitudes were scarce and controversial. The reported sun-protective behaviours were largely inadequate, with many workers stating that they never or only rarely wore a long-sleeved shirt (50-80%), sun-protective headgear (30-80%) and sunscreen (30-100%) while working in the sun. However, there is growing evidence that occupational sun-safety education is effective in increasing outdoor workers' sun-protection habits and presumably in decreasing sunburn rates. Occupational sun-safety education programmes offer great potential for improving outdoor workers' largely insufficient sun-protective behaviours. It is hoped that, in the future, committed support from healthcare authorities, cancer foundations, employers and dermatologists will open the way for rapid and uncomplicated implementation of sun-safety education programmes.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

Optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis, monitoring and guiding of treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review and economic evaluation

Based on a small body of evidence of variable quality, the study found that optical coherence tomography had high sensitivity and moderate specificity for diagnosing people with suspected neovascular age-related macular degeneration, and relatively high sensitivity but low specificity for monitoring those previously diagnosed with the disease.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: December 2014
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Bladder Cancer: Diagnosis and Management

Bladder cancer is the seventh most common cancer in the UK, with just over 10,000 cases diagnosed each year (CRUK, 2013a). These are unevenly split between men (fourth most common cancer) and women (11th most common cancer).

NICE Guideline - National Collaborating Centre for Cancer (UK).

Version: February 2015
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Adalimumab, Etanercept, Infliximab, Rituximab and Abatacept for the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis After the Failure of a Tumour Necrosis Factor Inhibitor: A Systematic Review and Economic Evaluation

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory condition that typically causes a symmetrical chronic arthritis. Timely use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) is an essential aspect of disease management, but many patients may not respond even when conventional agents are used optimally.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: March 2011
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Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression: Diagnosis and Management of Patients at Risk of or with Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression

It is difficult to know what the true incidence of metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) is in England and Wales because the cases are not systematically recorded. However, evidence from an audit carried out in Scotland between 1997 and 1999 and from a published study from Ontario, Canada, suggests that the incidence may be up to 80 cases per million population per year. This would mean around 4000 cases per year in England and Wales or more than 100 cases per cancer network per year.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Cancer (UK).

Version: November 2008
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Randomised controlled trial of Tumour necrosis factor inhibitors Against Combination Intensive Therapy with conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in established rheumatoid arthritis: the TACIT trial and associated systematic reviews

This study found that people with active rheumatoid arthritis eligible to start biologic treatment in England achieve similar clinical benefits at a lower cost from starting combinations of conventional disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: October 2014
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Surgical treatment of stage IA2 cervical cancer

Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women up to 65 years of age and is the most frequent cause of death from gynaecological cancers worldwide. Cervical cancer is staged (classified using a universally adopted system called International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging) according to how advanced the disease is and whether the cancer has spread beyond the cervix. Stage I cervical cancer is confined to the cervix. Stage I is divided into stage IA and IB. Stage IA is the earliest stage of cervical cancer where the cancer is so small it cannot be seen with the naked eye. Stage IA is subdivided further to stages IA1 and IA2. Stage IA2 means the cancer has grown between 3 and 5 mm into the cervical tissues, but it is still less than 7 mm wide.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of Wilms tumor.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: April 12, 2017

Systematic review of anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha therapy for treatment of immune-mediated uveitis

PURPOSE: To establish evidence-based recommendations regarding the use of anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α) agents for managing uveitis patients.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

Interventions for squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva in HIV‐infected individuals

Conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma, a tumour of the thin membrane that covers the white of the eye, is becoming more common, more aggressive, and affecting more young people, especially women. This pattern is associated with the HIV/AIDS pandemic, exposure to solar radiation, and infection with human papilloma virus (HPV). Various treatment modalities exist, but the recurrence rate is high and the cosmetic outcome of late disease unsightly (Figure 1). Death may occur when the disease spreads to the surrounding structures and the brain. This review was conducted to evaluate the effects of the current interventions. No randomised controlled trials of any interventions for this cancer were found. Current clinical practice appears to be based on case series and case reports. These are weak sources of evidence for the effectiveness of a treatment. Randomised controlled clinical trials are needed.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Dermoscopy compared with naked eye examination for the diagnosis of primary melanoma: a meta-analysis of studies performed in a clinical setting

The authors assessed the value of adding dermoscopy to clinical examination for the diagnosis of melanoma. Despite some limitations in the review process, their conclusion, that the addition of dermoscopy increased the accuracy of naked eye examination, is likely to be reliable.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2008

Nivolumab (Opdivo) for melanoma: Treatment with nivolumab (Opdivo) in combination with ipilimumab (Yervoy)

In 2016, the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG, Germany) looked into the advantages and disadvantages of nivolumab (trade name: Opdivo) combined with ipilimumab (trade name: Yervoy) for people with advanced melanoma.The results of their assessment were different for the following three groups of patients:The manufacturer did not provide any suitable data on people who had previous treatment. So it remains unclear whether nivolumab combined with ipilimumab has any advantages or disadvantages for this group of people compared with individually tailored treatment.The manufacturer did not provide any suitable data related to how vemurafenib compares with nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab used as a first treatment for people with a BRAF V600 mutation. It therefore remains unclear whether nivolumab has any advantages or disadvantages for these people.The Institute analyzed the results of two studies comparing nivolumab plus ipilimumab as a first treatment for people without a BRAF V600 mutation to the drug ipilimumab used as monotherapy. In the larger study, results from 431 people were available for analysis. Half of them had received treatment with nivolumab and ipilimumab, while the other half had used ipilimumab only. Results from 109 patients were analyzed from the smaller study. 72 of them had treatment with nivolumab / ipilimumab, while 37 of them used ipilimumab only.The following results apply to patients without a BRAF V600 mutation who were treated for the first time.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: October 6, 2016

Melanoma: Overview

Melanomas often look like dark moles. They can grow very quickly and spread to other parts of the body (metastasis). The treatment options will mainly depend on the stage of the disease.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: September 10, 2015

Colorectal Cancer: The Diagnosis and Management of Colorectal Cancer

This guideline is relevant to all healthcare professionals who come into contact with patients with colorectal cancer or suspected of having colorectal cancer, as well as to the patients themselves and their carers. It is also expected that the guideline will be of value to those involved in clinical governance in both primary and secondary care to help ensure that arrangements are in place to deliver appropriate care for the population covered by this guideline.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Cancer (UK).

Version: November 2011
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Evolution of Translational Omics: Lessons Learned and the Path Forward

Technologies collectively called omics enable simultaneous measurement of an enormous number of biomolecules; for example, genomics investigates thousands of DNA sequences, and proteomics examines large numbers of proteins. Scientists are using these technologies to develop innovative tests to detect disease and to predict a patient's likelihood of responding to specific drugs. Following a recent case involving premature use of omics-based tests in cancer clinical trials at Duke University, the NCI requested that the IOM establish a committee to recommend ways to strengthen omics-based test development and evaluation. This report identifies best practices to enhance development, evaluation, and translation of omics-based tests while simultaneously reinforcing steps to ensure that these tests are appropriately assessed for scientific validity before they are used to guide patient treatment in clinical trials.

National Academies Press (US).

Version: March 23, 2012
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KRAS mutation testing of tumours in adults with metastatic colorectal cancer: a systematic review and cost-effectiveness analysis

Study found that there was no strong evidence that any one KRAS mutation test was more effective or cost-effective than any other test for differentiating adults with metastatic colorectal cancer whose metastases are confined to the liver and are unresectable and who may benefit from first-line treatment with cetuximab in combination with standard chemotherapy from those who should receive standard chemotherapy alone.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: October 2014
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Urinary Tract Infection in Children: Diagnosis, Treatment and Long-term Management

In the past 30–50 years, the natural history of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children has changed as a result of the introduction of antibiotics and improvements in health care. This change has contributed to uncertainty about the most appropriate and effective way to diagnose and treat UTI in children and whether or not investigations and follow-up are justified.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: August 2007
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Colorectal cancer: Overview

Colorectal cancer is sometimes considered to be a disease only men have. But that is wrong: Although it affects men more commonly and often at an earlier age, women can also develop colorectal cancer. Here you can read about the risks and causes of colorectal cancer, and find information about the screening tests and living with the disease.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: January 26, 2017

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