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Varicose veins: Overview

About one in five adults have varicose veins. These bumpy, bluish veins are mostly a cosmetic issue for a lot of people. But they sometimes cause heavy-feeling legs, pain or muscle cramps. Read about the treatment options for varicose veins.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: July 13, 2016

Ankle brachial index for the diagnosis of lower limb peripheral arterial disease

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) of the legs affects 13% of people over 50 years of age. Sometimes PAD is "silent" and people are unaware they have it, but PAD can cause pain in the legs, especially with walking, and this type of symptomatic PAD affects about 5% of people in the Western world between the ages of 55 and 74 years. In PAD, fatty deposits (atherosclerosis) and blood clots cause the arteries to narrow and block. This leads to poor blood flow to the muscles during exercise, causing the classical symptom of muscle pain during walking that goes away after rest (intermittent claudication). In severe cases of PAD, symptoms of rest pain, ulceration and gangrene may develop and, if untreated, can lead to lower limb amputation. People with PAD are also at higher risk for cardiovascular disease and stroke.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Treatments for swelling of an artery in the groin following vascular procedures

People with heart disease and diseased leg arteries often undergo investigations and treatments that involve placing a needle into the main artery in the groin (endovascular procedures, for example diagnostic arteriogram, angioplasty, cardiac catheterization). One possible complication is the formation of a large swelling in the artery (a pseudoaneurysm) in the groin. This happens when the hole that the needle makes in the wall of the artery does not seal properly afterwards and blood collects, causing pain, swelling and bruising. Small pseudoaneurysms may clot spontaneously or surgery may be required. Less invasive treatment is now possible to stop the blood flow into the swelling. This involves sedation or analgesia to allow pressure to be placed over the puncture in the artery using a special mechanical device or a probe guided by ultrasound. Another option is injection of a clotting agent (thrombin) through the skin into the swelling.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Ultrasonography versus computed tomography scan for endoleak detection after endoluminal abdominal aortic aneurysm repair

An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a localised swelling or widening of a major vessel that carries blood to the abdomen (tummy), pelvis, and legs. People with AAA are at risk from sudden death due to AAA rupture (bursting). Once detected, intervention (treatment) is recommended once the AAA is bigger than about 5 cm in diameter. Most repairs are now performed using a new vessel lining inside the aneurysm guided by x‐ray control (endovascular aneurysm repair or EVAR).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

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