Home > Search Results
  • Added to PubMed Health

    clear
    • Custom range...

Results: 1 to 20 of 34

This review examines strategies to enable the continued use of the antibiotic cotrimoxazole in patients with HIV/AIDS to treat or prevent opportunistic infections in patients who previously experienced hypersensitivity to this drug.

Opportunistic infections are a threat to the lives and health of people living with HIV. Cotrimoxazole, an antibiotic also known as trimethoprim‐sulfamethoxazole, is used in the treatment and prevention of several opportunistic infections. In patients with HIV/AIDS, cotrimoxazole can cause more drug‐related side effects than in the general population. However, there are not many effective alternatives for this drug, which is also by far the cheapest option available. When a patient with HIV experiences a side effect related to cotrimoxazole, often the drug is continued (treating‐through) or reintroduced at a later date, either using increasingly larger doses (desensitization), or immediately starting at the full dose (rechallenge). This systematic review is the first to examine the differences in how patients are able to tolerate these strategies.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Hay fever and dust mite allergies: Allergic rhinitis: Non-drug interventions

Various medications and allergen-specific immunotherapy often provide effective relief from the symptoms of hay fever or dust mite allergies. But there are also other ways to prevent or relieve the symptoms.The most effective way to prevent the symptoms is by avoiding exposure to allergens (allergy triggers) in the first place. Whereas some allergens are easy to avoid, others are very difficult or impossible to avoid. Trying to prevent contact with allergens, such as dust mites in your home, is not always worth the amount of effort involved.If the allergy symptoms are mild, saline (salt water) solutions might also help relieve symptoms in the nasal area.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: February 4, 2014

Hay fever and dust mite allergies: Allergen-specific immunotherapy

People who have hay fever or a dust mite allergy sneeze a lot, and have a runny or stuffy nose. Many of those who have very severe and bothersome symptoms try out allergen-specific immunotherapy. This treatment aims to make the immune system “get used to” the substances triggering the allergy, so that it no longer reacts as strongly to them.The goal of allergen-specific immunotherapy is to reduce allergy symptoms in the medium to long term. It has to be repeated regularly and takes quite a long time to start working. In the past this treatment was commonly called "desensitization" or "hyposensitization." These terms describe what it aims to do: make the immune system less sensitive. In people who are allergic to something, their body is oversensitive or hypersensitive to an allergen (the substance that causes their allergic reaction). Their body produces antibodies to fight the allergen, even though the allergen is harmless. These antibodies are part of a chain reaction that leads to allergy symptoms. In allergen-specific immunotherapy, people are given allergen extracts to try to train their body to react differently: It is a bit like being “vaccinated” against your own allergy.Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) cannot be used for every allergy. It is called "specific" because the allergen extract has to be tailored to the individual person's allergic response. There are still no suitable SIT extracts for some substances that cause allergies. But there are extracts for many of the common allergens found in the air, for mold, for animal allergens, and for some toxic substances (like the poison in bee stings).

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: February 4, 2014

Hay fever and dust mite allergies: Medication for the relief of allergic rhinitis

People with seasonal hay fever often have very severe, but temporary, symptoms – for example during the grass pollen season. Others are allergic to dust mites and have allergy symptoms all year round. Whatever is causing the symptoms of allergic rhinitis, particular medications can relieve them.Although medications for the treatment of allergic rhinitis can have side effects, they are usually well tolerated. Various medications can reduce the symptoms. The most suitable one will depend on a person’s individual situation and can be discussed with a doctor.Factors that influence the choice of medication include the severity and type of allergic rhinitis (seasonal or year-round), as well as personal preferences and experiences. For instance, some people would prefer to take tablets rather than use a nasal spray. Others might feel tired when they use a certain medication, and decide to try a different one instead. Age and other things like medical conditions or pregnancy can play a role too.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: February 4, 2014

Hay fever and dust mite allergies: Overview

Various medications and allergen-specific immunotherapy often provide effective relief from the symptoms of hay fever or dust mite allergies. But there are also other ways to prevent or relieve the symptoms.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: February 4, 2014

Interventions for preventing reactions to snake antivenom

People die or can be seriously disabled after being bitten by a venomous snake. Different venomous snake species have different effects on the body, but initial treatment is similar ‐ to try and prevent venom entering the general circulation. If it becomes apparent that the venom has reached the bloodstream, the patients start becoming extremely unwell and in these circumstances health staff may give a specific antivenom (made from horse serum). However, antivenom frequently causes adverse effects which can, in themselves, be severe and result in death.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Non-drug interventions for asthma

Medication is important in the treatment of asthma, to prevent asthma attacks and keep the condition under control. But many people would like to do more than just take medication. Some of the additional things that can be done have been scientifically proven to help, whereas others have not.A lot of people use special breathing techniques to try to cope better with asthma attacks. If someone reacts to certain asthma triggers, they can try to avoid them as best as possible. Regular exercise and appropriate levels of sport can help you keep fit and prevent asthma symptoms. One of the most important things you can do is stop smoking – or not start smoking in the first place.Many people with asthma also try out “alternative” treatments like herbal medicine or acupuncture. But it is often not clear whether, and how well, these approaches work and what side effects they might have.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: February 26, 2014

Asthma: Symptoms and diagnosis

In people with asthma, the airways are overly sensitive. This chronic disease typically comes in episodes or attacks of wheezing, coughing and shortness of breath. But other diseases can have similar symptoms. So before starting with treatment, it is important to find out what exactly is causing the breathing problems.The mucous membranes lining the airways of people with chronic asthma are constantly on stand-by, ready to trigger an inflammatory response. This means that certain substances can set off a very rapid and very intense reaction. Compared to people who have healthy lungs, their mucous membranes are red and swollen, and more blood flows through them. The cells in the membranes start producing thicker mucus. If an asthma trigger is also present, the muscles surrounding the walls of the airways tighten as well. Together, all of these factors cause the bronchi (lung airway passages) to narrow and prevent air from flowing freely in and out of the lungs. This leads to shortness of breath.A severe asthma attack feels somewhat like trying to breathe only through a straw for a few minutes. Even if you blow air into it and suck air out of it as hard as you can, you are unable to get enough air into and out of your lungs.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: February 26, 2014

What kinds of allergy tests are there?

Various tests can be used to find out what kind of substance is causing an allergic reaction: skin tests, blood tests and challenge tests. Your doctor will usually decide which test to use based on your description of the symptoms and your medical history.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: April 20, 2016

Pregnancy and birth: Asthma in pregnancy

Many pregnant women who have asthma worry that their medication might harm their child. But most asthma medications are considered to be safe in pregnancy too. Untreated asthma, on the other hand, can have serious consequences.It is estimated that about 1 out of 5 pregnant women with asthma need treatment for asthma attacks. But good asthma control, particularly with the regular use of inhaled corticosteroids, can prevent these attacks. And there are a number of things you can do to avoid possible triggers of asthma attacks.In many women who have asthma, being pregnant does not affect their symptoms. Their symptoms sometimes even get better at first. But the physical changes that happen during pregnancy make asthma worse in 1 out of 3 women. Towards the end of pregnancy it often becomes increasingly difficult to stay physically active. Carrying the extra weight around can even make women who do not have asthma feel out of breath. Many cannot sleep properly, and feel tired and exhausted.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: February 26, 2014

Comparing the time taken to give paclitaxel (an anticancer drug) in advanced adenocarcinoma

Paclitaxel is derived from Yews (a type of tree), and can be used to treat for several cancers such as lung, womb, ovary and breast. It was initially given by a long infusion (injection) over 24 hours, with premedication to avoid any allergic reactions. It was also thought this method would be more active against tumours. Six randomised trials were included in this review, which found that short (three hour) infusions are more convenient and caused significantly fewer adverse (side) effects (i.e. decreased white blood cell counts, fever, infection or sore mouth). With short‐infusion paclitaxel there is no obvious loss of effectiveness when compared with longer infusions, although further clinical trials are needed to be sure of this.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Allergen-specific immunotherapy in asthma

In a lot of people, asthma is closely linked to an allergy. Their asthma attacks are mainly triggered by allergy-causing substances such as pollen, dust mites or animal fur. Allergen-specific immunotherapy might be considered as a treatment for this kind of asthma.The aim of this treatment is to prevent asthma attacks by making the body less sensitive to the allergy-causing substances. It is also known as desensitization or hyposensitization.In allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), people are repeatedly given small amounts of the substances that they are allergic to. This is meant to gradually make them less oversensitive to the substances. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is only possible if extracts of the allergen (the substance that triggers the allergy) are available for the treatment. This is currently the case for things like animal hair, dust mites, pollen, mold and the poison in insect stings.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: February 26, 2014

Systemic and topical antibiotics for chronic rhinosinusitis

We reviewed the evidence for the benefits and harms of systemic (given by mouth) or topical (given by nose) antibiotics for people with chronic rhinosinusitis.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Asthma: Information for parents

Asthma affects many children and teenagers: About 5 to 10 out of 100 young people have asthma symptoms. It is perfectly normal for parents to worry about this problem. But asthma can be managed with medication and non-drug interventions.A family's daily life does not need to be turned upside down if a child has asthma. It is important for the child to learn to manage their disease on their own. As parents, you can help keep the asthma under control by getting good treatment. You can also support your child by helping him or her to accept the disease and lead as normal a life as possible.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: February 26, 2014

Medication list

It can be helpful to list all medications you are taking before seeing a doctor. This may also make it easier for you to keep track yourself.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: November 7, 2013

Ayurvedic treatments for diabetes mellitus:

People with diabetes and other chronic diseases often use complementary and alternative medicines. This review examines the efficacy and safety of the use of various Ayurvedic treatments for diabetes mellitus. We found seven trials which included 354 participants (172 on treatment, 158 on control, 24 could not be classified). All these studies included adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Six studies tested five different types of herbal mixtures (proprietary drugs) and only one tested 'whole system' Ayurvedic treatment. The duration of treatment ranged from three to six months. One study each of Diabecon, Inolter and Cogent DB (proprietary herbal mixtures) found significantly lower glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1C) levels at the end of the treatment period compared to controls. Two studies of Diabecon, and one study of Cogent DB (proprietary herbal mixtures) found significantly lower fasting blood sugar levels at the end of the study period in the treatment group. No deaths were observed in these trials and side effects did not differ significantly between intervention and control groups. One study of Pancreas tonic reported no significant change in health‐related quality of life. No study reported on or was designed to investigate diabetic complications, death from any cause and costs. Despite positive results in some studies, and absence of serious side effects, firm conclusions cannot be drawn due to weak methods and small number of participants in the evaluated studies. Further research is needed to assess the efficacy of these treatments. Ayurvedic physicians generally use a mixture of various herbs or proprietary preparations along with diet, exercise and mode of living. The treatments are usually individualised taking into account the balance of three 'doshas'. It is possible that the interventions in the trials analysed have not replicated actual Ayurvedic practice but only assessed some components individually.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Prolonged antibiotics for purulent bronchiectasis in children and adults

Non‐cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis is a chronic respiratory condition characterised by abnormal dilatation of the airways. Although its global prevalence is largely unknown, available data from Australia, New Zealand, the United States and England show that bronchiectasis is now diagnosed with increasing frequency. The lungs of patients with bronchiectasis have excessive secretions, which tend to consist of different types of micro‐organisms. Long‐term antibiotic therapy was proposed to halt persistent and ongoing damage to the lung due to insult from micro‐organisms. Therefore, we seek to assess the effects of prolonged antibiotic therapy on patients with bronchiectasis.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Pregnancy and birth: What is effective against nausea in pregnancy?

Common medications for nausea and vomiting as well as ginger are often used in pregnancy. But there is only little scientific research on their effectiveness in pregnant women.Nausea and vomiting are common in early pregnancy: At least half of all women are affected by some nausea in the first few months of pregnancy. Although it is called morning sickness, and it can actually be worse in the mornings, it may last all through the day too. Nausea and vomiting can be difficult to deal with for some weeks, but they usually do not have any consequences for the mother and her child.It is not known why pregnancy is so often accompanied by these symptoms. One theory is that it is due to hormonal changes. It is unknown whether stress or psychological problems cause or worsen the symptoms.Morning sickness typically starts between the sixth and eighth week of pregnancy and is gone by the end of 16 weeks. For some women, it will go on even longer. It is not only a problem because it makes pregnant women feel so unwell – it can also be more difficult to eat a healthy diet or to stay well-nourished.About 1 out of 100 women experience a severe form of nausea with frequent and violent vomiting. This can lead to weight and fluid loss which can also endanger the child and needs to be treated in hospital. There, the woman will receive medication and her body will be supplied with fluids.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: September 24, 2014

Immunomodulatory interventions (treatments that target the immune system) for focal epilepsy syndromes

Epilepsy is a common neurological condition affecting approximately 50 million people worldwide. We still do not fully understand the mechanisms by which the brain becomes epileptic. Recently, it has been suggested that the immune system and how it responds to injury may play an important role in this process. We identified a single randomised controlled trial of a treatment that targets the immune system. The results of the trial suggest that this treatment (called intravenous immunoglobulin therapy) may be effective in reducing seizure frequency in some patients with epilepsy (on the basis of a global blind assessment including various methods for assessing seizures and quality of life) but more trials are necessary before any definite conclusions and recommendations can be made.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Erysipelas and cellulitis: Can antibiotics prevent cellulitis from coming back?

People who have already had cellulitis can prevent it from returning by taking low-dose penicillin. When used for this purpose, the penicillin is taken every day for up to twelve months. This preventive treatment is safe and well tolerated.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: June 3, 2015

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...