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The decay of a tooth, in which it becomes softened, discolored, and/or porous.

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Ozone therapy for the treatment of dental caries

There is no evidence that ozone therapy can reverse or stop tooth decay.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

One topical fluoride (toothpastes, or mouthrinses, or gels, or varnishes) versus another for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents

Topical fluorides such as mouthrinses and gels do not appear to be more effective at reducing tooth decay in children and adolescents than fluoride toothpaste.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

Fluoride toothpastes for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents

Children who brush their teeth at least once a day with a toothpaste that contains fluoride will have less tooth decay.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Combinations of topical fluoride (toothpastes, mouthrinses, gels, varnishes) versus single topical fluoride for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents

Additional forms of topical fluoride can reduce tooth decay in children and adolescents more than fluoride toothpaste alone, but the extra benefit is not great.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

Topical fluoride (toothpastes, mouthrinses, gels or varnishes) for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents

The use of fluoride toothpastes, mouthrinses, gels or varnishes reduces tooth decay in children and adolescents.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

Adhesively or non‐adhesively bonded amalgam restorations for dental caries

Tooth decay is a common problem affecting both children and adults. Cavities form in the teeth by the action of acid produced by bacteria present in dental plaque or biofilm.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Fluoride varnishes for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents

The main question addressed by this review is how effective the use of fluoride varnish for the prevention of caries in children and adolescents is compared to placebo (a treatment without the active ingredient i.e. fluoride) or no treatment.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Fluoride mouthrinses for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents

Tooth decay is a health problem worldwide, affecting the vast majority of adults and children. Levels of tooth decay vary between and within countries, but children in lower socioeconomic groups (measured by income, education and employment) tend to have more tooth decay. Untreated tooth decay can cause progressive destruction of the tops of teeth (crowns), often accompanied by severe pain. Repair and replacement of decayed teeth is costly in terms of time and money and is a major drain on the resources of healthcare systems.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Prevention of Dental Caries in Children Younger Than 5 Years Old: Systematic Review to Update the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation [Internet]

A 2004 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) review recommended that primary care clinicians prescribe oral fluoride supplementation to preschool children over the age of 6 months whose primary water source is deficient in fluoride but found insufficient evidence to recommend for or against risk assessment of preschool children by primary care clinicians for the prevention of dental caries.

Evidence Syntheses - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: May 2014
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Topical fluoride for the prevention of dental caries in children: a sytematic review

Bibliographic details: Huang J, Chen Z, Guo Y.  Topical fluoride for the prevention of dental caries in children: a sytematic review. Chinese Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine 2012; 12(7): 848-854 Available from: http://www.cjebm.org.cn/en/oa/DArticle.aspx?type=view&id=2012070018

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

Dental caries prevention: the physician's role in child oral health systematic evidence review

Bibliographic details: Bader J D, Rozier G, Harris R, Lohr K N.  Dental caries prevention: the physician's role in child oral health systematic evidence review. Rockville, MD, USA: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Systematic Evidence Review; 29. 2004 Available from: http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/serfiles.htm

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2004

Interventions to change diet in a dental care environment

Unhealthy sugar consumption habits are known to be associated with high rates of dental decay, and fizzy drink consumption habits associated with tooth enamel being dissolved (dental erosion). Members of the dental team routinely assess patients' diets, highlighting areas where this could be improved to reduce disease. This advice might extend to dietary issues affecting general as well as oral health. Although we know that certain dietary habits contribute to disease, whether patients take note of advice given to them and change their diet as a result, is less certain. The aim of this review was to determine whether efforts by dentists and other dental staff members are successful in changing patients' diets. We limited the review to looking at studies where diet advice was given in a dental surgery or similar place, and where the advice was given by one member of staff to an individual patient.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Slow‐release fluoride devices for the control of dental decay

We conducted this review to assess the effects of different types of slow‐release fluoride devices on preventing, stopping, or reversing the progression of tooth decay on all surface types of deciduous ('baby') and permanent teeth.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Sealants for preventing dental decay in the permanent teeth

Although children and adolescents of today have more healthy teeth than in the past, tooth decay (dental caries) is still a problem in some individuals and populations, and in fact affects a large number of people around the world. The majority of decay in children and adolescents is concentrated on the biting surfaces of back teeth. The preventive treatment options for tooth decay include tooth brushing, fluoride supplements (for example chewing gums) and topical fluoride applications and dental sealants which are applied at dental clinics.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Pit and fissure sealants versus fluoride varnishes for preventing dental decay in the permanent teeth of children and adolescents

This review aimed to assess whether dental sealants (or sealants together with fluoride varnishes) or fluoride varnishes are more effective for reducing tooth decay on biting surfaces of permanent back teeth in young people.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Titanium tetrafluoride and dental caries: a systematic review

The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of titanium tetrafluoride as a preventive or cariostatic agent against caries. The databases used to find the articles analyzed were MEDLINE LILACS, and BBO. In MEDLINE and LILACS the search strategy utilized was "titanium" [Words] and "tetrafluoride" [Words] and Spanish or English or Portuguese [Language], whereas In BBO "titânio" [Words] and "tetrafluoreto" [Words] and Espanhol or Inglês or Português [Language]. Out of a total of 42 studies found, which assessed possible preventive/cariostatic effects of titanium tetrafluoride against caries in vivo, only 2 were selected. In both studies, titanium tetrafluoride was shown to be effective against caries. However, given that the quality and consequently the validity of these two clinical studies are questionable, their results do not allow to conclude that titanium tetrafluoride is effective against caries clinically.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2005

Dental Sealants and Preventive Resins for Caries Prevention: A Review of the Clinical Effectiveness, Cost-effectiveness and Guidelines [Internet]

The objective of this report is to review the evidence with respect to clinical effectiveness, specifically caries prevention, and cost effectiveness of dental sealants and preventative resins when applied to permanent teeth of children and adolescents.

Rapid Response Report: Summary with Critical Appraisal - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: October 31, 2016
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Dental Recall: Recall Interval Between Routine Dental Examinations

The guideline includes recommendations for patients of all ages (both dentate and edentulous patients) and covers primary care received from NHS dental staff (dentists, independent contractors contracting within the NHS, dental hygienists and therapists) practising in England and Wales. The guideline takes into account the potential of the patient and the dental team to improve or maintain the quality of life and to reduce morbidity associated with oral and dental disease.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Acute Care (UK).

Version: October 2004
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Dietary factors in the prevention of dental caries: a systematic review

The aim of this study was, systematically, to evaluate the effect of dietary changes in the prevention of dental caries. A search and analysis strategy was followed, as suggested by the Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU). The search strategy for articles published in 1966-2003 was performed using electronic databases and reference lists of articles and selected textbooks. Out of 714 articles originally identified, 18 met the inclusion criteria for a randomized or controlled clinical trial--at least 2 years' follow-up and caries increment as a primary endpoint. This included the total or partial substitution of sucrose with sugar substitutes or the addition of protective foods to chewing gum. No study was found evaluating the effect of information designed to reduce sugar intake/frequency as a single preventive measure. It is suggested that the evidence for the use of sorbitol or xylitol in chewing gum, or for the use of invert sugar, is inconclusive. No caries-preventive effect was found from adding calcium phosphate or dicalcium phosphate dihydrate to chewing gums. The review dearly demonstrates the need for well-designed randomized clinical studies with adequate control groups and high compliance.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2003

Flossing to reduce gum disease and tooth decay

It is assumed that removing plaque (a layer of bacteria in an organic matrix which forms on the teeth) will help prevent gum disease (gingivitis) and tooth decay (dental caries). Gum disease, which appears as red, bleeding gums, may eventually contribute to tooth loss. Untreated tooth decay may also result in tooth loss. Toothbrushing removes some plaque, but cannot reach in‐between the teeth, where gum disease and tooth decay are common. This review looks at the added benefit of dental flossing, in people who brush their teeth regularly, for preventing gum disease and tooth decay.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

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