Home > Search Results

Results: 1 to 20 of 514

Oral contraceptives to treat cysts of the ovary

Women of reproductive age usually release an egg about once a month. The ovary gets an egg from the inside of the ovary to its surface by creating a blister or fluid‐filled space around the developing egg. When the blister (or cyst) reaches the surface of the ovary, it bursts and releases the egg into the abdominal cavity. After this occurs, the blister can develop into another type of cyst, which makes a hormone (progesterone) that helps the pregnancy to grow. Most of these cysts come and go without problems. Sometimes, however, the cysts get large or painful; others may remain for months. Several decades ago, health care providers learned that women taking birth control pills had fewer cysts, since the pills usually kept an egg from being released. Based on this fact, many clinicians started treating these cysts with birth control pills to make them go away faster.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Percutaneous needle aspiration, injection, and re‐aspiration with or without benzimidazole coverage for uncomplicated hepatic hydatid cysts

Two randomised clinical trials on the puncture, aspiration, injection, and re‐aspiration method for patients with uncomplicated hepatic hydatid cyst were identified. One trial compared puncture, aspiration, injection, and re‐aspiration with surgical treatment. The other trial compared puncture, aspiration, injection, and re‐aspiration with or without albendazole with albendazole alone. Both trials had high risk of bias. The number of participants enrolled and the follow‐up duration are insufficient for a definite conclusion to be drawn. In general, there is insufficient evidence to support or refute the puncture, aspiration, injection, and re‐aspiration method with or without benzimidazole coverage for patients with uncomplicated hepatic hydatid cyst.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Treatments for simple bone cysts in the long bones of children

Simple bone cysts ('unicameral' or 'solitary' bone cysts) are the most common type of non‐cancerous (benign) bone abnormality (lesion) in growing children. Cysts make the bone cortex (hard outer layer of bone) thin and may lead to repeated pathological fracture (one that occurs without much trauma in an area of weakened bone). Occasionally, such fractures can result in limb shortening and deformity. The main goals when treating simple bone cysts are to decrease the risk of pathological fracture, assist cyst healing and stop pain. There are several treatment methods available but there is no agreement about which is best. Therefore, we made a thorough review of the available evidence for different methods of treating simple bone cysts in the long bones of children to see if we could identify which method is best. This is an updated version of the original review published in 2014.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

What is the best treatment for a type of jaw bone cyst called a 'keratocystic odontogenic tumour'?

This review has been conducted to assess the effects of different interventions for the treatment of a particular type of cyst that occurs mainly in the lower jawbone, called a keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Pharmacological treatment of depression in patients with a primary brain tumour

People with brain tumours may experience epilepsy, memory problems and fatigue. Depression is also common and doctors might choose to treat this with antidepressants, since antidepressants are thought to be effective in other patients. However, antidepressants could be less effective, or could cause more side effects, in patients with brain tumours.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Chemotherapy, radiotherapy or both after surgery for treatment of a rare tumour of the ovary

Ovarian carcinosarcoma (malignant mixed Mullerian tumour) is a rare malignant gynaecological tumour comprising around 1% or less of all ovarian cancers. These tumours contain both carcinomatous (arising from the epithelial tissue, the tissue that lines the cavities and surfaces of structures throughout the body) and sarcomatous tissue (arising from the connective tissue) within them. This tumour usually presents at an advanced stage and has a poor survival rate despite treatment. It is usually treated with a combination of surgery and chemotherapy, and sometimes radiotherapy. Various types of chemotherapy drugs have been used to treat the woman before and after surgery (neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Surgical removal of the thymus for myasthenia gravis that is not caused by a tumour of the thymus

Myasthenia gravis is a disorder that causes muscle weakness and excessive muscle tiredness. In most people with myasthenia gravis, muscles throughout the body are affected in the first two years after the onset of symptoms, although there is also a form of the disease that affects only the eyes (ocular myasthenia). Myasthenia gravis occurs when the person’s own immune system attacks the vital structures that transmit impulses from nerves to muscle, the neuromuscular junctions. A tumour affecting an immune system organ called the thymus (a thymoma) is sometimes the underlying cause; this is known as thymomatous myasthenia gravis. Thymomatous myasthenia gravis was not the subject of this systematic review as the thymoma should be treated on its own merit, independently of the myasthenia gravis.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Laparoscopic surgery for presumed benign ovarian tumor during pregnancy

No randomized controlled trials to compare 'open surgery' with 'keyhole surgery' in pregnant women for non‐malignant tumors of the ovary.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Tumour necrosis factor alpha blocking agents for treatment of active ulcerative colitis

Ulcerative colitis is a chronic relapsing inflammatory disorder of the large bowel. Although corticosteroids are effective for treating ulcerative colitis, approximately 20% of patients who respond become sick again when steroids are withdrawn and become steroid dependent. Furthermore, corticosteroids exhibit significant adverse effects. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF‐α) is a proinflammatory cykotine that is involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease and psoriasis. TNF‐ α blocking drugs may provide an alternative treatment for patients who do not respond to corticosteroid and/or immunosuppressive drug treatment. This review shows that intravenous infusions of infliximab, a TNF‐α blocking agent is effective in inducing clinical remission, promoting mucosal healing, and reducing the need for colectomy in patients with active ulcerative colitis whose disease has not responded to conventional treatment.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Additional chemotherapy with doxorubicin marginally improves tumour response but increases side effects with no improvement in survival

Doxorubicin is commonly used as palliative chemotherapy for patients with advanced or metastatic soft tissue sarcoma (cancer of muscle/tendon/fat/blood vessel). This review was conducted to find out if combining doxorubicin with other drugs is more effective than doxorubicin alone. Eight studies were considered together, which showed if combination chemotherapy is given: (1) tumour shrinkage was marginally better than in patients treated with doxorubicin alone; (2) survival was no different; and (3) side effects were worse than for patients treated with doxorubicin alone

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Interventions for the management of fatigue in adults with a primary brain tumour

A primary brain tumour (PBT) is a cancer that began in the brain rather than spread from other parts of the body. Fatigue (tiredness) is common in people with a PBT. This may be due to the tumour, its treatment or to the use of other medicines such as antiepileptic drugs (which are used to treat epilepsy seizures). It may also occur with other symptoms such as sleep disturbance, thinking problems and emotional distress. Treatments to help manage fatigue may improve a person's quality of life, their ability to tolerate cancer treatment (which themselves are associated with fatigue), and their ability to carry out social and day‐to‐day activities.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Tumor necrosis factor‐alpha antibody for induction of remission in Crohn's disease

Although corticosteroids are effective for treating Crohn's disease, approximately 20% of patients who respond become sick again when steroids are withdrawn and become steroid dependent. Furthermore, corticosteroids exhibit significant adverse effects. TNF alpha is a chemical that causes some of the inflammation of Crohn's disease. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha blocking drugs may provide an alternate treatment for patients who do not respond to corticosteroid or immunosuppressive drug treatment. This review shows that a single intravenous infusion of infliximab (5 mg/kg) may be an effective treatment for patients with active Crohn's disease who no longer respond to corticosteroids or immunosuppressive drugs. There is also some evidence that CDP571, another TNF alpha blocking drug may be effective. There is no evidence to support the use of etanercept, a drug that blocks the action of TNF alpha by binding to receptors. There were no serious side effects associated with TNF blocking drugs, although the follow‐up period of the studies reported in this review may have been too short to assess the development of serious side effects.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Multidisciplinary rehabilitation after brain tumour treatment

People with brain tumours can experience a range of symptoms and disabilities, such as psychological problems, difficulties with mobility or self care, and relationship and work issues, which can substantially impact their quality of life. These symptoms and disabilities may be addressed through 'multidisciplinary rehabilitation' delivered by a team of different healthcare professionals (for example doctors, nurses, therapists) working in an organised manner.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

Ovarian cyst aspiration and IVF outcomes

Cochrane authors investigated the effectiveness and safety of cyst aspiration before ovarian stimulation versus a conservative approach (no aspiration) in women undergoing In vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Our primary outcomes were live birth rate and adverse events. We also assessed pregnancy rates, number of follicles recruited, and number of oocytes retrieved.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Surgery to remove tumour so that it is not visible with the naked eye prolongs survival in women with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer

Epithelial ovarian cancer is a disease in which malignant cells form in the tissue covering the ovary. It accounts for about 90% of ovarian cancers; the remaining 10% arise from germ cells or the sex cords and stroma of the ovary. Women with epithelial ovarian cancer that has returned after primary treatment (recurrent disease) may need secondary surgery to remove all or part of the cancer. When ovarian cancer recurs after more than six months it is considered suitable for further treatment with platinum chemotherapy (platinum sensitive).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Mannitol versus hypertonic saline for intraoperative brain relaxation in patients undergoing surgery for brain tumour

Review question: We reviewed evidence on the effectiveness of mannitol and hypertonic saline for brain relaxation in people having surgery (craniotomy) for brain tumour.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

Anaesthesia with injectable versus gaseous anaesthetic agents for rapid awakening following surgery for brain tumour

Review question: We reviewed and compared evidence on the usefulness of injectable and gaseous techniques for rapid awakening from anaesthesia in people undergoing surgery for brain tumour.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

Interferon for the treatment of melanoma patients after surgical removal of their tumour

Cutaneous melanoma is one of the deadliest types of skin cancer, and its incidence is rising in all Western countries. Furthermore, melanoma is one of the solid tumours most resistant to treatment with chemotherapy, which means that the outlook for people whose cancer has spread through their body (distant metastatic disease) is dismal, with only 10% of these patients surviving longer than 5 years.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Tumor necrosis factor‐alpha antibody for maintenance of remission in Crohn's disease

Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the intestines. Crohn's disease frequently occurs in the lower part of the small intestine (the ileum), however it can affect any part of the digestive tract, from the mouth to the anus. The most common symptoms of Crohn's disease are abdominal pain, often in the lower right region of the abdomen, and diarrhea. TNF is a molecule secreted by white blood cells that increases inflammation. High levels of TNF‐alpha have been associated with the development of intestinal inflammation in Crohn's disease. TNF‐alpha blocking agents (infliximab, adalimumab, certolizumab pegol and CDP571) bind with TNF‐alpha molecules thereby neutralizing the biological activity of TNF‐alpha resulting in the healing of intestinal inflammation. All four molecules are synthetic antibodies that bind TNF. Infliximab (Remicade®) is an antibody of mouse origin that has been humanized, as is CDP571. Adalimumab (Humira®) is an antibody of human origin. Certolizumab is a humanized antibody fragment that is complexed with polyethylene glycol to extend the length of time the drug is in the body. Nine studies were reviewed. The studies compared TNF‐alpha blocking agents with placebo (inactive intravenous infusions or injections) and found that infliximab, adalimumab, and certolizumab pegol were effective in maintaining remission in patients with Crohn's disease who respond to induction therapy with these agents. There is no evidence that CDP571 is an effective maintenance therapy. The TNF‐alpha blocking agents appear to be safe for patients with Crohn's disease with equal numbers of patients receiving TNF‐alpha blocking agents or placebo reporting side effects such as headache, abdominal pain, nausea, and pain at injection site. There were some serious side effects reported with the use of these agents including infections such as tuberculosis. However, patients can be screened for inactive tuberculosis prior to treatment with TNF‐alpha. A link between long term treatment with TNF‐alpha blocking agents and cancer is possible but not proven. Data obtained from observational studies including the Crohn's Therapy, Resource, Evaluation and Assessment Tool (TREAT) registry show no increased risk of cancer with the use of TNF‐alpha blocking agents in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. The current evidence suggests that the TNF‐alpha blocking agents infliximab, adalimumab, and certolizumab pegol are effective maintenance therapy in Crohn's disease. However, the use of these medications needs to be weighed against the potential risk of serious side effects, particularly infection.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Anaesthetic techniques for risk of malignant tumour recurrence

Surgery remains a mainstay of treatment for patients with many types of cancer. However, surgical stress and certain anaesthesia and pain medications commonly given during anaesthesia for cancer surgery are known to suppress body defences. Therefore, surgery and anaesthesia might contribute to long‐term cancer recurrence. Different types of anaesthesia are available. General anaesthesia indicates that the patient goes to sleep for his or her surgery, regional anaesthesia means that the part of the body that is operated on is numbed by a numbing medication (local anaesthetic), or a combination of the two techniques can be used. Regional anaesthesia has the potential to reduce the use of certain anaesthesia and pain medications that are injected into the vein or inhaled into the lung, as well as to attenuate surgical stress. Therefore, previous research has suggested that regional anaesthesia might reduce the risk of long‐term cancer recurrence.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...