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Oral antibiotics appear to be as effective as parenteral antibiotics in the treatment of severe pneumonia in children

Acute respiratory infection (including pneumonia) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age in developing countries. Antibiotics are needed when a bacterial infection is suspected. When children are hospitalised they often receive injectable antibiotics. This has disadvantages: pain, risk of other infections and cost. There are studies that show that oral antibiotics are effective when children are treated as outpatients. The objective of this review was to determine the effectiveness and safety of oral antibiotics compared to parenteral antibiotics in the treatment of pneumonia in children less than five years old. Oral therapy appears to be an effective and safe alternative to parenteral antibiotics in hospitalised children with severe pneumonia who do not have any serious signs or symptoms. There is currently insufficient evidence to determine the relative benefits and harms of oral antibiotics in children with severe pneumonia if serious signs and symptoms are present or in children with severe pneumonia associated with bacterial confirmation or lobar consolidation on chest X‐ray.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Antibiotics and antiseptics for surgical wounds healing by secondary intention

These are surgical wounds which are left open to heal through the growth of new tissue, rather than being closed in the usual way with stitches or other methods which bring the wound edges together. This is usually done when there is a high risk of infection or a large amount of tissue has been lost from the wound. Wounds which are often treated in this way include chronic wounds in the cleft between the buttocks (pilonidal sinuses) and some types of abscesses.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Interventions for treating melioidosis

Plain language summary pending.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Different antibiotics for community‐acquired pneumonia in otherwise healthy children younger than 18 years of age in hospital and outpatient settings

Pneumonia is the leading cause of mortality in children under five years of age. Most cases of community‐acquired pneumonia (CAP) in low‐income countries are caused by bacteria. This systematic review identified 29 randomised controlled trials from many different countries enrolling 14,188 children and comparing antibiotics for treatment of CAP in children. Most were single studies only.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Interventions for renal vasculitis in adults

Renal vasculitis presents as rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis which is a form of kidney disease that causes damage to the small structures (glomeruli) inside the kidneys that help filter waste and fluids from blood to form urine. The disease leads to a rapid loss of kidney function. Standard suppression of the immune system with steroids and cyclophosphamide is recommended. The aim of this review was to evaluate the benefits and harms of any intervention for the treatment of renal vasculitis. Thirty one studies (2217 patients) were identified. Plasma exchange reduces the risk of end‐stage kidney disease in patients presenting with severe acute kidney failure. The use of pulse cyclophosphamide results in good remission rates but there was an increased risk of relapse. Azathioprine is effective as maintenance therapy once remission has been achieved. Mycophenolate mofetil is equivalent for remission induction than cyclophosphamide. Mycophenolate mofetil has also been tested in maintenance treatment and was found to result in a higher rate of disease relapse. Initial data on rituximab showed equivalent effectiveness to cyclophosphamide. Methotrexate and leflunomide are useful in maintenance therapy but their relative effectiveness are not clearly defined. Treatment with cotrimoxazole may prevent respiratory infections and relapses but are unlikely to have a major impact on systemic relapses of vasculitis.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Testing Treatments: Better Research for Better Healthcare. 2nd edition

How do we know whether a particular treatment really works? How reliable is the evidence? And how do we ensure that research into medical treatments best meets the needs of patients? These are just a few of the questions addressed in a lively and informative way in Testing Treatments. Brimming with vivid examples, Testing Treatments will inspire both patients and professionals.

Pinter & Martin.

Version: 2011

Fluoroquinolones for treating enteric fever

Researchers in The Cochrane Collaboration conducted a review of the effect of fluoroquinolone antibiotics in people enteric fever. After searching for relevant studies, they identified 26 studies involving 3033 patients. Their findings are summarized below.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Antibiotics for the prevention of lower respiratory tract infections in children at high risk aged 12 years and under

We reviewed the evidence for antibiotics to prevent bacterial lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in children aged 12 years and under who are at increased chance of contracting such infections.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Interventions to treat chronic infection of the prostate gland (chronic bacterial prostatitis)

Chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) involves infection and inflammation of the prostate gland in men of all ages. It can cause problems urinating, including discomfort and pain, increased frequency and urge, or problems emptying the bladder. Bacteria infecting the prostate are the cause of CBP. These bacteria may be sexually transmitted. To cure CBP, antibiotics must be administered for extended periods of time (four weeks or longer), but a permanent cure is not always guaranteed. Other drugs may be combined with antibiotics to improve CBP symptoms. This review found that fluoroquinolones like ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, lomefloxacin, ofloxacin or prulifloxacin have equivalent effects and equivalent success rates in CBP patients. If atypical bacteria like chlamydia are suspected to cause CBP, macrolide antibiotics such as azithromycin may achieve better results compared to the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin. It must be taken into account that some of the studies that have been performed are of poor quality or have been performed on small numbers of participants. More studies are needed, focusing on new agents or on optimized doses of currently prescribed antibiotics.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

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