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Intermittent claudication (cladicatio intermittens) is a symptom of atherosclerosis. The disorder causes pain in the muscles of the legs while walking, and pain subsides after a few moments of rest.

Swedish Council on Health Technology Assessment (SBU).

Version: February 24, 2010

Intermittent claudication is a cramping pain, brought on by exercise and relieved by rest, that is caused by an inadequate blood flow to the calf and leg muscles. It is a symptom of atherosclerosis, a disease where fatty deposits build up in the arteries, blocking blood flow. It has been suggested that taking Vitamin E may improve blood flow and boost the body's ability to repair. The review of trials found that more research is needed to show if Vitamin E reduces the effect of intermittent claudication. No adverse effects were found.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: January 26, 1998

The main symptom of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is leg pain in one or both calves while walking. Typically, this pain occurs during walking and is relieved by a short period of rest. This clinical phenomenon is called intermittent claudication (IC). Peripheral arterial disease is caused by progressive narrowing of the arteries in one or both legs and is a manifestation of systematic atherosclerosis, possibly leading to cardiovascular events. Conservative treatment consists of treatment for cardiovascular risk factors and symptomatic relief by exercise therapy and pharmacological treatments. One of the pharmacotherapeutical options is Ginkgo biloba extract, which is derived from the leaves of the Ginkgo biloba tree and has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. It is a vasoactive agent which is believed to have a positive effect on walking ability in patients with PAD. This review shows that people using Ginkgo biloba could walk 64.5 metres further, which was a non‐significant difference compared with the placebo group. Overall, there is no evidence that Ginkgo biloba has a clinically significant benefit for patients with PAD.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: June 6, 2013

Atherosclerosis is a disease of the arteries in which fatty deposits block the flow of blood. This can cause intermittent claudication, when cramping pain in the legs is brought on by exercise and relieved by rest. These fatty deposits can also cause serious blockages that lead to heart attacks and the need for amputation (surgical removal of the limb). Anticoagulants, such as heparin or warfarin, are drugs that prevent clotting and may help people with intermittent claudication. No new studies were included for this update. Seven studies with 802 participants were included in this review. The review of trials found that the benefit of heparin, LMWHs and oral anticoagulants for treatment of intermittent claudication has not been established while an increased risk of major bleeding events has been observed, especially with oral anticoagulants. There is no clear evidence to support the use of anticoagulants for intermittent claudication at this stage. More research is needed.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: May 7, 2014

Intermittent claudication is a cramping leg pain that develops when walking and is relieved with rest. It is caused by inadequate blood flow to the leg muscles because of atherosclerosis (fatty deposits on the walls of the arteries blocking blood flow). People with mild‐to‐moderate claudication are advised to keep walking, stop smoking and reduce cardiovascular risk factors. Possible treatments include exercise, drugs, bypass surgery or angioplasty. Angioplasty involves expanding the narrowed artery. This can be done by inflating a 'balloon' inside the artery. Sometimes stents (thin metal sleeves) are inserted to keep the artery open.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: January 20, 2010

Intermittent claudication is a cramping leg pain that develops during exercise and is relieved by a short period of rest. It is caused by inadequate blood flow to the muscles of the leg because of atherosclerosis (hardening and narrowing of the arteries). Intermittent claudication is closely associated with other vascular diseases, such as a heart attack or stroke. Therefore, all patients with intermittent claudication should receive cardiovascular risk management and lifestyle coaching to reduce cardiovascular risk factors.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: July 4, 2014

Intermittent claudication (IC) is pain in the leg that occurs on exercise and is relieved by rest. It is caused by an inadequate blood supply to the legs due to blockage of arteries. Conservative drug treatment is commonly used in an attempt to improve walking distance in these patients. Padma 28 is a Tibetan herbal preparation used for treating intermittent claudication.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: March 29, 2016

Intermittent claudication (IC) is pain that develops in a limb (mostly calves and thighs) during exercise and is relieved with rest. It is caused by insufficient blood flow due to peripheral arterial occlusive disease.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: March 28, 2013

Patients with narrowed arteries of the lower limbs may be hampered by pain in their calves after relatively short walks. This limits the distance they can walk, and hence their quality of life. This is a sure sign of atherosclerosis. These patients are at greater risk of cardiovascular death and should take preventive measures. The symptoms of the disease can be alleviated by smoking cessation and exercise. The question is whether specific drugs such as naftidrofuryl also reduce symptoms, more than placebo. To answer the question, we collected all published reports of randomized trials where the drug was compared with placebo. In addition, we went back to the original data of individual patients and made one big database with all data from all patients from all trials. We included seven studies with a total of 1266 patients. The improvement of pain‐free walking distance was 37% larger in the naftidrofuryl group than the improvement observed in the placebo group. In the naftidrofuryl group 55% of the patients improved by more than 50%, compared with 30% of patients on placebo. Naftidrofuryl 200 mg (taken three times a day by mouth) improved walking distance in the six months after the start of therapy.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: December 12, 2012

Intermittent claudication (IC) is a symptom of lower limb ischaemia that results from peripheral arterial disease (PAD). It is evident as muscle pain (ache, cramp, numbness or sense of fatigue) in the leg muscles that occurs during exercise and is relieved by a short period of rest. Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) and prostacyclin (PGI2), also known as prostanoids, are vasoactive drugs used in PAD to reduce arterial insufficiency. The aim of this review was to evaluate the effects of prostanoids in patients with IC. We identified 18 randomised studies with a total of 2773 participants, of which four studies compared the effects of PGE1 versus placebo. Overall, there was insufficient high quality evidence to suggest that PGE1 improves walking distances in people with IC. There was also a lack of evidence to determine if PGE1 was more effective than laevadosin, naftidrofuryl or L‐arginine. Evidence on the efficacy of prostacyclin was inconclusive. Results suggest that, compared with PGE1, prostacyclin may be associated with an increased occurrence of side effects including headache, diarrhoea and facial flushing.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: April 30, 2013

Intermittent claudication is a cramping leg pain that develops when walking and is relieved with rest. It is caused by inadequate blood flow to the leg muscles caused by atherosclerosis (fatty deposits restricting blood flow through the arteries). People with mild to moderate claudication are advised to keep walking, stop smoking, and reduce cardiovascular risk factors. Other treatments include antiplatelet therapy, pentoxifylline or cilostazol, angioplasty (inserting a balloon into the artery to open it up), and bypass surgery.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2018

Atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries, results in narrowing and blockage of the arteries and can reduce the blood supply to the legs, causing peripheral arterial disease. Intermittent claudication (IC) is a cramp‐like pain felt in the leg muscles that is brought on by walking and is relieved by standing still or resting. Pentoxifylline is a drug that is used to relieve IC while improving people's walking capacity. It decreases blood viscosity and improves red blood cell flexibility, promoting microcirculatory blood flow and increasing oxygen in the tissues. This review looked at all available evidence from randomised controlled trials on the efficiency of pentoxifylline for treatment of IC.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: September 29, 2015

Intermittent claudication is a cramping leg pain that occurs during walking and is relieved by a short period of rest. It is caused by inadequate blood flow to the muscles of the leg due to atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries). Exercise therapy provides significant symptomatic benefit for patients with intermittent claudication. Patients are recommended to walk at least three times a week by themselves. However, they can also participate in a formal supervised exercise program that involves walking on a treadmill or complete a structured home‐based exercise program with an observation component (e.g., exercise logbooks, pedometers).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2018

Intermittent claudication is a pain in the calf due to a lack of blood needed to supply those muscles with oxygen during exercise or movement, ultimately resulting in the person to slow or stop movement. It is the most common presenting symptom for people with long‐standing lower limb arterial disease resulting from narrowing of the arteries that supply the lower limbs with blood. This narrowing most commonly occurs through the process of atherosclerosis in which an artery wall thickens as a result of the accumulation of fatty materials such as cholesterol and triglycerides. People with mild lower limb arterial disease are advised to stop smoking, exercise, and take an antiplatelet agent to prevent heart attack or stroke. Medication to improve walking distance is only of limited value.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: July 4, 2013

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a condition in which there is blockage or narrowing of the arteries that carry blood to the legs and arms. It is estimated to affect around 4.5% of people aged between 55 and 74 years within the UK. The most common symptom of PAD is intermittent claudication (IC), characterised by pain in the legs on walking that is relieved with rest.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: December 2011

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a condition in which there is blockage or narrowing of the arteries that carry blood to the legs and arms. It is estimated to affect around 4.5% of people between the age of 55 and 74 years within the UK. The most common symptom of PAD is intermittent claudication (IC), characterised by pain in the legs on walking that is relieved with rest. The treatment of IC is targeted at reducing the risk from cardiovascular events and includes smoking cessation, cholesterol lowering, glycaemic control, weight reduction and blood pressure control. Symptoms can be managed with exercise therapy and/or pharmacological therapies, including cilostazol (Pletal®, Otsuka Pharmaceuticals), naftidrofuryl oxalate (Praxilene®, Merk Serono), pentoxifylline (Trental 400®, Sanofi-aventis) and inositol nicotinate (Hexopal®, Genus Pharmaceuticals).

NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme: Executive Summaries - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: 2011

Intermittent claudication, affecting approximately 4.5% of the general population aged 40 years and older, is a common symptomatic form of peripheral arterial disease and is characterised by pain in the calf or buttock in the legs that starts with walking and eases with rest. This leg pain is caused by reduced blood flow to leg muscles due to a blockage in the leg arteries as a consequence of atherosclerosis (hardening and plaque buildup in the arteries). People with intermittent claudication experience severely limited walking distances, resulting in a sedentary lifestyle and decreased quality of life.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2018

Lower limb peripheral arterial disease (known in the document as peripheral arterial disease, PAD) is a marker for an increased risk of potentially preventable cardiovascular events even when it is asymptomatic. If it becomes symptomatic it can lead to significant impairment of quality of life through limiting mobility and in its more severe manifestations may lead to severe pain, ulceration and gangrene and is the largest single cause of lower limb amputation in the UK.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: August 2012

Bibliographic details: Miranda AS, Rodrigues LB, Rodrigues SL, Cardoso Junior CG, Menacho MO, Christofaro DG, Ritti-Dias RM.  Effects of walking and strength training on walking capacity in individuals with claudication: meta-analysis. Jornal Vascular Brasileiro 2013; 12(2): 110-117 Available from: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S1677-54492013000200110

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

Bibliographic details: Cebria Iranzo MA, Sentandreu Mano T, Baviera Ricart MC, Igual Camacho C.  [Effectiveness of therapeutic physical exercise in patients with intermittent claudication due to peripheral arterial disease: a review]. [Efectividad del ejercicio fisico terapeutico en pacientes con claudicacion intermitente por enfermedad arterial periferica: una revision.] Fisioterapia 2010; 32(4): 172-182

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2010

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