Home > Search Results

Results: 1 to 20 of 125

Clear

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms including chronic/juvenile myelomonocytic leukemias and atypical CML.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: August 12, 2015

Patients who are new to a cancer care facility and cancer treatment are often stressed and anxious due to their diagnosis of cancer, uncertainties about treatment, needle phobias and meeting new care providers. This review focuses on the effects of information programs which provide information specifically related to the facility and the services available to patients, their families and care givers. A broad search of published reports located only four studies with 610 participants which met the criteria for inclusion in this review. Orientation interventions may reduce distress in patients, but the quality of the evidence is low. The effects of such intervention on patient/carer satisfaction, knowledge and recall were not sufficiently evaluated or reported by the included trials. Although the studies generally reported positive outcomes for participants (e.g. more knowledgeable about the cancer centre and cancer therapy, better coping abilities), the studies generally were of poor quality and did not have a sufficient number of participants to eliminate the possibility of bias.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Young women are at high risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including types of human papillomavirus (HPV) that can cause cervical cancer. High rates of STIs among young people highlight a need for effective strategies to prevent the spread of infections. Although behavioural approaches (e.g. using condoms consistently) could protect against STIs and cervical cancer, there is a lack of evidence on which strategies would be most effective in practice. This systematic literature review was conducted to identify which types of behavioural strategy have been tested and to assess their effectiveness.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death and almost 75% of people are incurable at diagnosis. Non‐small cell is the most common type of lung cancer (almost 90% of all lung cancer cases). For many of these people, chemotherapy is a good treatment option and it is associated with longer survival and better quality of life. However, treatment for people with advanced non‐small cell lung cancer is palliative, in that it provides relief from pain and other distressing symptoms. Treatments that include cisplatin or carboplatin plus another drug are the most widely used drug combinations, but they can be associated with undesirable toxicity. Thus, it would be desirable to have a treatment that is just as effective but with less toxicity.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Background: Cervical cancer (cancer of the neck of the womb) is the second most common cancer among women throughout the world, accounting for about 500,000 new detected cases and 273,000 deaths every year. Women more commonly present with advanced disease in the developing world, where access to cervical screening programmes is limited. Advanced cancer of the cervix may not be curable and women often need treatment to control distressing symptoms (palliation), such as vaginal bleeding. Bleeding can be severe enough to be life threatening in women with advanced cervical cancer. Management of vaginal bleeding often poses a challenge, especially in the developing world, where access to radiotherapy is limited. Options for palliative treatment of severe vaginal bleeding include interventional radiology treatment (using x‐rays to guide the insertion of 'plugs' into blood vessels supplying the cancer) or vaginal packing (where gauze is compacted into the vagina to absorb the blood and apply pressure directly to the cervix), although these are often only partly effective and may cause harm. Vaginal packs can be soaked with formalin, which is a preservative chemical. Other options for treating severe vaginal bleeding include tranexamic acid (a medicine that reduces bleeding that can be given by mouth or by injection) and radiotherapy (high‐energy x‐ray treatment).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

SCLC is a type of cancer that originates in the lungs. It is a very aggressive form of cancer that tends to grow and spread throughout the body quickly. As a result, chemotherapy is often the first type of treatment used for this type of cancer. Another type of treatment used for SCLC is radiotherapy, which is often given to the lung or to the brain.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Cancer may result in extensive emotional, physical and social suffering. Current cancer care increasingly incorporates psychosocial interventions to improve quality of life. Creative arts therapies such as dance/movement, music, art and drama therapy have been used to aid care and recovery. Following medical therapies, which can be invasive, people with cancer use dance/movement therapy to learn to accept and reconnect with their bodies, build new self‐confidence, enhance self‐expression, address feelings of isolation, depression, anger, fear and distrust and strengthen personal resources. It has also been used to improve range of arm motion and to reduce arm circumference after mastectomy or lumpectomy. For this review, studies were considered only if dance/movement therapy was provided by a formally trained dance/movement therapist or by trainees in a formal program.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

We asked if giving fewer radiation treatments (using a higher radiation dose at each visit) was as effective as the conventional 25 to 30 radiation treatments for women with early breast cancer who have breast conserving therapy (keep their breast).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

The choice of chemotherapy in women with relapsed epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is influenced by the duration of the platinum‐free interval, the length of time from the last platinum‐based cycle to the time of disease progression. Women who relapse within one month of receiving platinum therapy or who progress on therapy are considered to be platinum‐refractory; women who relapse between one and six months after platinum therapy are considered to be platinum‐resistant; and women who relapse more than six months after platinum therapy are considered to be platinum‐sensitive. The latter group is further subgrouped by women who relapse between six and 12 months after platinum therapy (partially platinum‐sensitive) and those who relapse after 12 months.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Worldwide, lung cancer is responsible for most cases of cancer‐related death among individuals of both sexes. For adult patients with advanced disease, therapy regimens based on the combination of cisplatin or carboplatin with a different agent are considered the standard of care. However, few elderly patients have been included in relevant trials for chemotherapy, raising concerns about the safety and efficacy of such regimens, which are considered the standard of care for adult patients. As a consequence, older patients are often treated with less intense chemotherapy regimens.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: August 5, 2016

Multiple myeloma, plasmacytoma, lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) are different types of plasma cell neoplasms. Find out about risk factors, symptoms, tests to diagnose, prognosis, stages, and treatment for these diseases.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: December 8, 2017

How do we know whether a particular treatment really works? How reliable is the evidence? And how do we ensure that research into medical treatments best meets the needs of patients? These are just a few of the questions addressed in a lively and informative way in Testing Treatments. Brimming with vivid examples, Testing Treatments will inspire both patients and professionals.

Pinter & Martin.

Version: 2011

Advanced cancer causes a range of complex problems for patients. In gynaecological (for example ovarian and womb) and gastrointestinal (for example colon or bowel) cancers, the bowel can become blocked or obstructed by the original tumour, metastatic deposits or due to the side effects of previous treatments. The decision to operate on patients with bowel obstruction who are already very unwell because of their advanced cancer is difficult. Often, these people develop bowel obstruction as a sign that the cancer is progressing and they are in the process of dying. When the bowel obstructs in this situation, surgery might be useful for some patients, it might make no difference to how long the patient has to live, or it might make the situation worse due to the complications of surgery. When time is short, managing symptoms and maximising comfort for the patient is the priority. Different surgical teams adopt different approaches. We wanted to establish the evidence for the benefit and harm of surgery in these situations and therefore help patients and doctors make good decisions.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

The aim of this Cochrane Review was to find out if using topical sunscreen and physical barrier methods (such as sun‐protective clothing, hats, sunglasses, and the active search for shade when outdoors) compared with no specific precautionary activity prevented the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) of the skin in adults and children.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) arises from the cells covering the surface of the ovary. The majority of women with this type of cancer present with advanced stage disease at diagnosis. The initial treatment involves surgery (removal of as much disease as possible) followed by chemotherapy. In some cases chemotherapy is given to shrink the cancer before surgery is undertaken. Irrespective of the type of treatment received, cancer will return at some point in some women. Treatment following relapse, usually involves chemotherapy. The choice of chemotherapy depends on the cancer‐free period from the initial chemotherapy (platinum drugs). If relapse occurs after six months from finishing initial treatment with chemotherapy, women are treated with platinum drugs. However if the cancer recurs within six months, women are treated with non‐platinum drugs, since platinum drugs would be unlikely to work again. Eventually, the majority of women develop resistance to any chemotherapeutic drug. Some women also suffer from drug‐related side effects and poor quality of life (QoL) as a result of treatment. Therefore, there is a need for newer drug treatments with fewer side effects. In this context, hormone therapy have been tried. Luteinising hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist are hormones that work by telling the pituitary gland located in the brain to stop producing this hormone and as a result the tumour cells in the ovary, which may be dependent on this hormone, cannot be stimulated. LHRH agonists have been used in relapsed EOC and some studies have shown low toxicity with these hormones.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

No randomized controlled trials to compare 'open surgery' with 'keyhole surgery' in pregnant women for non‐malignant tumors of the ovary.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Oesophagectomy followed by oesophagogastrostomy, in which an anastomosis between the residual oesophagus and the stomach substitute is made, remains the standard surgery for patients with oesophageal cancer. Whichever surgical procedure is chosen, that is, transthoracic oesophagectomy (TTE) with direct visualisation of the thoracic oesophagus or transhiatal oesophagectomy (THE) with avoidance of a thoracic incision, postoperative anastomotic leakage causes considerable morbidity and mortality. Omentoplasty, in which the omentum is used to wrap the anastomosis, has been recommended by some researchers to prevent postoperative anastomotic leakage—one of the most serious complications of oesophagectomy followed by oesophagogastrostomy for patients with oesophageal cancer. This updated systematic review, including 633 participants in three randomised controlled trials, suggests that omentoplasty could reduce the incidence of anastomotic leakage and the duration of hospital stay after operation. Although the difference in anastomotic leakage was significant only among patients undergoing THE, the risk ratios of omentoplasty for THE and TTE were similar. In addition, omentoplasty does not appear to increase or decrease hospital mortality nor the incidence of postoperative complications, such as anastomotic stricture, pulmonary and cardiac complications, infection, vocal cord palsy and perijejunostomy leakage. Additional clinical trials are needed to investigate the influences of omentoplasty on the incidence of anastomotic leakage and anastomotic stricture, long‐term survival, duration of hospital stay and quality of life after oesophagectomy and oesophagogastrostomy when different surgical approaches are used.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Expert-reviewed report about grief, bereavement, and feelings of loss in survivors of someone who has died of cancer. Grief in children is also discussed.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: March 6, 2013

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of renal pelvis and ureter transitional cell cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: May 22, 2015

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...