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Antibiotics for brain abscesses in people with cyanotic congenital heart disease

Serious congenital heart disease leads to abnormal blood flow through the heart and lungs. This results in an inability to carry enough oxygen around the body which makes patients blue (cyanotic) and severely limits their physical activity. People with cyanotic congenital heart disease are at risk of developing brain abscess. This condition is serious and can lead to death because the abscess causes abnormal brain function. Treatment includes antibiotic therapy to kill the bacteria that cause the infection. In people with a large abscess, an operation to drain the abscess may be carried out. Antibiotic therapy for brain abscess should include drugs that penetrate into the abscess cavity. The drugs chosen should also be matched to the sensitivity of the bacteria obtained from the abscess in laboratory culture. There is no evidence from randomized controlled trials to show the best antibiotic regimen for treating people with cyanotic congenital heart disease who develop brain abscess.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Erysipelas and cellulitis: Overview

Erysipelas or cellulitis can develop if bacteria enter the skin through cuts or sores. Both infections make your skin swell and become red, warm and tender. Provided the right treatment is started early enough, these bacterial skin infections usually clear up without any lasting effects.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: June 3, 2015

Embolisation therapy for pulmonary arteriovenous malformations

Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations are abnormal connections between arteries and veins in the lung. They are known to cause serious complications such as stroke, brain abscess, bleeding in the lung and poor oxygenation. Embolisation is the mainstream treatment for pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. During embolisation, balloon or coil embolisation devices, or both combined, are used to block the feeding artery or arteries to the pulmonary arteriovenous malformation. These malformations can often be small, multiple and widely spread out thus not all of them are suitable for embolisation treatment. In this systematic review, we did not include any randomised controlled trials of embolisation versus surgery or comparing different embolisation devices; but one potentially eligible ongoing trial has been identified. While accumulated observational studies have suggested benefits of embolisation, randomised controlled trials are not always feasible on ethical grounds. In the absence of randomised controlled trials, a standardised approach to reporting, as well as long‐term follow‐up through registry studies can help to improve the safety and outcome of embolisation for pulmonary arteriovenous malformations.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Antibiotics for clinically diagnosed acute rhinosinusitis in adults

Acute rhinosinusitis is a common condition that involves blockage of the nose passage and mucus in the sinuses. The diagnosis of acute rhinosinusitis in this review is based on clinical symptoms only, i.e. purulent discharge from the nose or other rhinosinusitis‐like symptoms, such as unilateral facial pain or pressure, pain when bending forward, pain in the upper teeth or when chewing, and post‐nasal drip. It is often caused by a viral upper respiratory tract infection of which only 0.5% to 2% of cases are estimated to be complicated by a bacterial rhinosinusitis. Nevertheless, antibiotics (used to treat bacterial infections) are often prescribed. Unnecessary prescribing contributes to antimicrobial resistance in the community. Therefore, in order to provide clinicians and patients with evidence‐based guidance for management, it is important to assess the effect of antibiotics in acute rhinosinusitis.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

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