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Sick sinus syndrome (SSS) and atrioventricular block (AV block) are the two most common reasons people have pacemakers implanted. Both involve the heart beating abnormally slowly. Pacemakers replace or control the heart's own electrical activity. Single chamber pacemakers work on one of the chambers (sections) of the heart, while dual chamber pacemakers, which are more expensive, work on two simultaneously. The review of trials found that dual chamber pacemakers tended to prevent more subsequent heart problems than single chamber ventricular pacemakers. The impact on people's overall quality of life is uncertain. The review did not investigate the relative benefits or risks of surgery to upgrade to a dual chamber pacemaker.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: April 19, 2004

The study found that dual-chamber pacemakers appeared to be cost-effective compared with single-chamber pacemakers in patients with bradycardia due to sick sinus syndrome without atrioventricular block.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: August 2015

The objective of the assessment was to estimate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of dual-chamber pacemakers versus single-chamber atrial or single-chamber ventricular pacemakers in the treatment of bradycardia due to sick sinus syndrome (SSS) or atrioventricular block (AVB).

NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme: Executive Summaries - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: 2005

No significant differences between dual-chamber and single-chamber (ventricular or atrial) pacemakers were identified for major outcomes, such as mortality and stroke, in patients with sick sinus syndrome and/or atrioventricular block. The authors' conclusion that there are small, but potentially important, benefits associated with dual-chamber compared with ventricular pacing, is broadly supported by the data, but significant areas of uncertainty remain.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2005

BACKGROUND: Ablation of the slow pathway is an established cure for atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT). Periprocedural damage to the conduction system is a major concern during AVNRT ablation, and cryoablation (CRYO) has been suggested to improve the procedural safety compared to standard radiofrequency (RF) ablation, without reducing the procedural success.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Beta blockers inhibit the chronotropic, inotropic, and vasoconstrictor responses to the catecholamines, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. Beta blockers differ in their duration of effect (3 hours to 22 hours), the types of beta receptors they block (β1-selective or β1/β2-nonselective), whether they are simultaneously capable of exerting low level heart rate increases (intrinsic sympathomimetic activity [ISA]), and in whether they provide additional blood vessel dilation effects by also blocking alpha-1 receptors. All beta blockers are approved for the treatment of hypertension. Other US Food and Drug Administration-approved uses are specific to each beta blocker and include stable and unstable angina, atrial arrhythmias, bleeding esophageal varices, coronary artery disease, asymptomatic and symptomatic heart failure, migraine, and secondary prevention of post-myocardial infarction. The objective of this review was to evaluate the comparative effectiveness and harms of beta blockers in adult patients with hypertension, angina, coronary artery bypass graft, recent myocardial infarction, heart failure, atrial arrhythmia, migraine or bleeding esophageal varices.

Drug Class Reviews - Oregon Health & Science University.

Version: July 2009

These guidelines provide guidance on the diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection and the care of people living with HIV. They are structured along the continuum of HIV testing, prevention, treatment and care.

World Health Organization.

Version: 2016

To assess the benefits and harms of cardiac resynchronization with (CRT-D) and compared to an ICD alone, CRT without a defibrillator (CRT-P) compared with optimal medical therapy and CRT-D compared with CRT-P in patients with an EF ≤35% and a QRS duration ≥120 ms. We also sought to assess predictors of response to CRT-D and CRT-P.

Technology Assessment Report - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: March 24, 2015

We compared the effectiveness and harms of fingolimod (Gilenya™) to other disease-modifying drugs in the treatment of multiple sclerosis.

Drug Class Reviews - Oregon Health & Science University.

Version: February 2011

There are a number of existing guidelines, for epilepsy, falls and cardiac arrhythmias; which all relate to transient loss of consciousness (TLoC), but there is no guideline which addresses the initial assessment and management of patients who blackout. As such patients may come under the care of a range of clinicians, the lack of a clear pathway contributes to their misdiagnosis, and inappropriate treatment.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre for Acute and Chronic Conditions (UK).

Version: August 2010

To assess evidence sufficiency or insufficiency for hereditary hemochromatosis screening relating to two main United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) criteria: the burden of suffering and the potential effectiveness of a preventive intervention.

Evidence Syntheses - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: August 2006

INTRODUCTION: Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) is the most common supraventricular tachycardia referred for ablation. High success rates have been accompanied with a small risk of atrioventricular (AV) block. Cryoablation has been used as an alternative to radiofrequency (RF) ablation, but studies have been underpowered in comparing the 2 techniques.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

The Perceval S sutureless valve consists of a bioprosthetic valve mounted on a self-expanding nitinol stent. It received European regulatory approval in January 2013, and is currently undergoing US registration trials. In Canada it is available on a named-patient basis through the Health Canada special access program. This report reviews the evidence for the effectiveness, safety and cost effectiveness for the Perceval S sutureless valve for patients with aortic stenosis.

Rapid Response Report: Summary with Critical Appraisal - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: January 29, 2015

This study found that dexmedetomidine may be effective in reducing intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay and time to extubation in critically ill ICU patients. Evidence on the use of clonidine in ICU is very limited. Large, well-designed clinical trials are needed to evaluate the long-term effects of clonidine for sedation in ICU and to identify subgroups of patients who are more likely to benefit from dexmedetomidine.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: March 2016

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a very common problem. In England alone, approximately 835,000 people have AF.321 Through its effects on rate and rhythm, it is a major cause of morbidity. Through increasing susceptibility to stroke, it is a major cause of both morbidity and mortality.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: June 2014

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI), or heart attack, is one of the major causes of mortality worldwide. Approximately one‐third of people suffering heart attacks die before they reach the hospital. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) is a procedure whereby the coronary artery is widened without surgery, using a stent. Although this procedure restores blood flow through the coronary artery, perfusion through all areas of the heart may not occur. This is known as no‐reflow. To try to resolve this problem, healthcare workers have tried drugs such as adenosine and verapamil as add‐on treatment. We include 11 studies in this review with a total of 1027 participants. Ten studies compared adenosine or placebo as an addition to PPCI, and one compared verapamil or placebo.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: May 18, 2015

Study found that implantable cardiac defibrillators reduced all-cause mortality in people at increased risk of sudden cardiac death as a result of previous ventricular arrhythmias or cardiac arrest, remote myocardial infarction or ischaemic/non-ischaemic heart failure and LVEF ≤ 35%. Cardiac resynchronisation therapy reduced all-cause mortality and improved other outcomes in people with heart failure as a result of left ventricular systolic dysfunction and cardiac dyssynchrony when compared with optimal pharmacological therapy. The devices were cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of £30,000 when compared with optimal pharmacological therapy.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: August 2014

Atrial fibrillation (AF) and typical atrial flutter are common and debilitating abnormalities of the heart rhythm (arrhythmias).

NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme: Executive Summaries - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: 2008

Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States in adults. Traditional risk factors do not account for all of the excess risk associated with coronary heart disease. Screening for abnormalities with resting or exercise electrocardiography (ECG) could help identify persons at higher risk for coronary heart disease who might benefit from interventions to reduce cardiovascular risk.

Evidence Syntheses - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: September 2011

This Rapid Response report aims to review the clinical- and cost-effectiveness of telehealth for patients with hypertension, coronary artery disease (CAD), or conditions requiring implantable cardiac devices. Guidelines associated with the use of telehealth in the management of these conditions will also be examined.

Rapid Response Report: Summary with Critical Appraisal - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: January 27, 2016

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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