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This summary will answer these questions: What is BED? How is BED treated? » Talk therapy (talking with a trained therapist) » Medicines What have researchers found about how well talk therapy and medicines work to treat BED? What are possible side effects of medicines to treat BED? What should I discuss with my health care professional?

Comparative Effectiveness Review Summary Guides for Consumers [Internet] - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: May 24, 2016

This summary will tell you about: What alcohol use disorder is Medicines to treat alcohol use disorder What research says about how well the medicines work Possible side effects of the medicines Things to talk about with your doctor

Comparative Effectiveness Review Summary Guides for Consumers [Internet] - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: February 16, 2016

This summary will answer these questions: What are disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs)? How are DBDs treated? » Psychosocial treatment (treatment with a trained therapist) » Medicines What have researchers found about treatments for DBDs? What are possible side effects of medicines for DBDs? What should I talk about with my child's or teen's health care professional?

Comparative Effectiveness Review Summary Guides for Consumers [Internet] - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: August 31, 2016

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common problem affecting children and adolescents. ADHD is characterized by inattention (being easily distracted, unable to focus on one task), impulsivity (fidgety; constantly moving), and hyperactivity (impatient; acts without thinking). One of the most common treatments for managing ADHD is the drug class of amphetamines, which are a class of stimulant medications. They are thought to reduce the severity of symptoms associated with ADHD.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: February 4, 2016

Over 75% of people with cancer experience pain. Around 30% to 50% of these people have moderate to severe pain, which can have a negative impact on daily life. Cancer pain is a distressing symptom that tends to worsen as the disease progresses. Hydromorphone may help relieve these symptoms.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: October 11, 2016

We reviewed the evidence of the effects of methylphenidate on the behaviour of children and adolescents with ADHD.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: November 25, 2015

There are a number of studies that suggest a relationship between decline of melatonin function and the symptoms of dementia. Meta‐analysis was conducted on data from three randomised, placebo controlled trials that were designed to evaluate melatonin for managing dementia‐related cognitive changes; data also were pooled from two of these trials that evaluated melatonin for managing mood and behavioral disturbances. Significantly improved outcomes were found from the meta‐analysis of psychopathologic behavior and mood scale scores. Melatonin treatment may be effective for the treatment of dementia‐related psychopathologic behavior disturbances. No evidence was found to support the effectiveness of melatonin for the treatment of cognitive impairment.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: January 25, 2006

Toxoplasma retinochoroiditis occurs when a parasite called Toxoplasma gondii gets into the retina (the light‐sensitive layer inside the eye) and the choroid (layer of the eyeball near the retina). This causes inflammation that can scar the retina and reduce vision. Symptoms include a sudden feeling of discomfort in the eye and loss of vision, which usually resolve spontaneously within six to eight weeks. The infection can keep returning, increasing the chances of damage. Antibiotics are sometimes used to try to reduce the inflammation and scarring, or to prevent the infection from re‐emerging, but it is unclear how well they work.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: May 20, 2016

Alcohol dependence is a chronic disease, which can develop when alcohol is heavily used over longer periods of time. Alcohol affects various brain regions, including the opioid receptor system, which mediates euphoric and pleasurable effects of alcohol. By blocking alcohol effects at these receptors, the opioid antagonists naltrexone and nalmefene can reduce alcohol "liking" and "craving" and thus support alcohol dependent patients in cutting down their drinking. 50 studies with 7793 participants were included in the review, in most studies treatment was provided over a period of three months. The review shows that more patients who took naltrexone were able to reduce the amount and frequency of drinking than those who took an identical appearing, but inert substance (placebo). On average, one out of nine patients was helped by naltrexone. Naltrexone does not have serious side effects, but gastrointestinal symptoms like nausea, stomach pain and loss of appetite are common. Some patients also get tired from naltrexone. For injectable formulations of naltrexone, which can be advantageous for patients who have problems with taking their medication on schedule, and the second opioid antagonist nalmefene, the database is still too sparse to allow final conclusions. Nevertheless, the available studies indicate that these drugs might have comparable effects on drinking than oral naltrexone has. Naltrexone does not cause dependency and unlike disulfiram, another medicine that is sometimes used to treat alcohol dependence, it does not make patients feel sick if they drink alcohol while taking it.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: December 8, 2010

Crohn’s disease is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gut, which can affect people anywhere from the mouth to anus. Specific hormones (proteins that transmit instructions in the body) that are known to be involved in pain response may be involved in the inflammation that underlies Crohn’s disease. Perhaps by giving patients a low dose of one of these proteins called naltrexone Crohn’s disease can be improved.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: February 21, 2014

Anaemia, which occurs when red blood cell and haemoglobin levels fall below normal, is a common problem among adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Anaemia can cause breathlessness, dizziness and chest pain (angina); reduce ability to think clearly; limits ability to exercise; and contributes to sexual problems, poor appetite and reduced quality of life. Anaemia may also cause longer hospital stays, and sometimes death.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: October 9, 2014

Seasonal affective disorder (winter depression) is a type of depression that recurs in the autumn and lasts until the spring. It is similar to regular depression except sufferers are usually very tired and have an increase in their appetite. It is more common in countries with few daylight hours in winter. One of the mainstays of treatment for all depression, including winter depression, are second‐generation antidepressants (SGAs) such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). It is not clear how well these drugs work for winter depression and how they compare to each other or to other types of therapy such as light therapy.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: December 7, 2011

There is very low quality evidence that morphine taken by mouth has any important effect on pain in people with moderate or severe neuropathic pain.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: May 22, 2017

There is not enough evidence available to determine if acupuncture, maternal massage, bright light therapy, or omega‐3 fatty acids are effective interventions in treating antenatal depression.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: July 31, 2013

Previous asthma treatment guidelines recommended doubling the dose of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) at the first sign of an asthma attack as part of an action plan. We looked for all studies that have assessed whether such an increase is better than and is as safe as carrying on with the usual ICS dose.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: June 7, 2016

Expert-reviewed information summary about fatigue, a condition marked by extreme tiredness and inability to function because of lack of energy, often seen as a complication of cancer or its treatment.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: June 30, 2017

Approximately 1 in 100 to 1 in 800 people have peptic ulcers. The major causes of peptic ulcer are Helicobacter pylori infection, non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drug (NSAID) use, and smoking. People who have peptic ulcer have upper abdominal pain, which is sometimes accompanied by dyspepsia (that is fullness, bloating, loss of appetite after eating a small amount of food, or nausea). The most serious complications of peptic ulcers are bleeding from the ulcer and perforation of the peptic ulcer, which results in stomach or upper small intestinal contents or both leaking into the tummy. About 1 in 10 people with bleeding peptic ulcer and 1 in 4 people with perforated peptic ulcer die. Peptic ulcers cause approximately 3000 to 4500 deaths per year in the US.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: March 29, 2016

Hepatitis C is a disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) which spreads from person to person through blood contact which is a result of sharing drug needles, and other items contaminated with blood. This virus remains in the body for a long time and can affect the liver causing its slow destruction or cirrhosis and liver cancer. Infected people may have weakness, nausea, jaundice and lose weight. On blood tests they may have increase in liver enzymes and bilirubin.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: August 19, 2015

There are a lot of treatments for the relief of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) – but there is a lack of good-quality research on them. Because the causes of IBS are not clear, it is difficult to find suitable treatments. But research has suggested that at least some medications and treatments may help.The main symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome are abdominal pain, constipation and diarrhea. Most people only have mild symptoms that they can cope with fairly well without having treatment. Over time they learn to understand their body's signals. But some people have such severe symptoms that their everyday lives are greatly affected and it becomes very distressing. If that is the case, various treatment options can be considered.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: October 20, 2016

Hepatitis C is a disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus. Globally, an estimated 170 million people are chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus. Chronic hepatitis C can cause liver damage in the form of inflammation and scarring of the liver (cirrhosis). Liver damage can lead to liver failure and other complications, including liver cancer. The goal of treatment of chronic hepatitis C is to prevent complications of hepatitis C infection; this could possibly be achieved by clearing the virus from the blood of the patient (sustained virological response, that is, undetectable hepatitis C virus RNA in serum by sensitivity testing six months after the end of treatment). However, we still need to understand whether the sustained virological response outcome induced by antiviral treatment has any association with patient‐relevant and clinically relevant outcomes. A combination of weekly injections of peginterferon and oral ribavirin represents the current standard of care.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: February 28, 2014

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