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About - Anal Cancer

Cancer that forms in tissues of the anus. The anus is the opening of the rectum (last part of the large intestine) to the outside of the body.

Results: 1 to 20 of 174

Anal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about factors that may influence the risk of developing anal cancer and about research aimed at the prevention of this disease.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: December 11, 2014

Comparison of interventions for patients diagnosed with pre‐cancerous changes of the anal canal (anal intraepithelial neoplasia)

Persistent infection with some types of human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause anal canal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), a condition which may become cancerous. HPV is transmitted via skin‐to‐skin contact. There are over 100 different types of HPV virus. At least 30 of these can be sexually transmitted. HPV transmission occurs easily among sexual partners. Despite this, spontaneous clearance of the infection is generally the rule.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Anal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of anal cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: January 31, 2017

Anal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of anal cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: July 7, 2016

Anal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about factors that may influence the risk of developing anal cancer and about research aimed at the prevention of this disease.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: February 23, 2017

Sentinel node mapping in anal canal cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The pathological condition of inguinal lymph nodes is an independent prognostic factor in predicting tumor recurrence and overall survival in anal canal cancer. Sentinel node mapping is a non-invasive method for the detection of inguinal lymph node involvement in anal cancer. In the current study, we conducted a comprehensive search of literature in this regard and then interpreted the final results in a systematic review and meta-analysis format.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

Chemotherapy/chemoradiation in anal cancer: a systematic review

This broad review of efficacy and toxicity of concomitant chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy in patients with anal cancer concluded that available treatments were ineffective, but that cisplatin appeared to be an effective treatment for anal cancer. The broad structure of the review and lack of analytical framework make the reliability of the conclusions difficult to substantiate.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2011

Non surgical therapy for anal fissure.

Anal fissure is a painful ulcer usually occurring in the posterior midline of the skin just outside the entry to the rectum. Its persistence is due to spasm of the internal sphincter muscle. The typical pain of this condition is pain on moving one's bowels that persists for some time afterward. Relief with healing of chronic fissures until very recently has been achieved by surgical procedures aimed at ablation of the sphincter spasm. Because of the risk of incontinence resulting from surgery, medical alternatives for surgery have been sought. Among the older medications, bran is effective in preventing recurrence of acute fissure. Local application of muscle relaxing therapy is effective in healing chronic anal fissure, though not as well as surgery, and with considerable risk of adverse events during therapy. There is a Cochrane review related to this review dealing only with surgical procedures.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Systematic review of sentinel lymph node biopsy in anal squamous cell carcinoma

BACKGROUND: Anal squamous cell carcinoma with lymph node metastases carries a poor outcome. There remains a need for a better method to diagnose inguinal lymph node metastases which is minimally invasive, accurate and avoids unnecessary irradiation to the groin with its associated significant co-morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy in anal squamous cell carcinoma.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

A systematic review of prognosis and therapy of anal malignant melanoma: a plea for more precise reporting of location and thickness

Anal malignant melanoma (AMM) is a rare tumor with poor prognosis. We performed a systematic review of reports on wide local excision (WLE) and abdominoperineal resection (APR) for treatment of AMM in an attempt to define a precise set of reporting measures for outcomes of treatment of AMM. A systematic review of the literature was performed. Demographic data, surgical treatment, pathology, and survival rates were recorded. We compared WLE versus APR in terms of the overall survival time, the disease-free survival, and overall survival at 60 months. Twenty-one reports met the inclusion criteria. Notably, of these, 10 did not specify thickness of the primary melanoma. Interestingly, groin lymph node status was described in 19 of 21 reports, whereas location was specified in only 12 papers and thickness (depth in mm) in only 11. The median survival times of patients undergoing WLE (n = 324) and those undergoing APR (n = 369) are comparable (20 and 21 months, respectively). The mean median survival at 60 months was 15 per cent for WLE and 14 per cent for APR. The mean disease-free survival at 60 months was found to be 10 per cent for WLE and 6 per cent for APR. Patient selection for such a rare neoplasm yields very similar outcomes for both conservative and radical treatments. There is a wide variation in the reporting of both clinical and treatment outcomes. More uniformity of reporting of pathologic features and node status is essential before rational assessment of results can be done.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

Comparative accuracy of anal and cervical cytology in screening for moderate to severe dysplasia by magnification guided punch biopsy: a meta-analysis

BACKGROUND: The accuracy of screening for anal cancer precursors relative to screening for cervical cancer precursors has not been systematically examined. The aim of the current meta-analysis was to compare the relative accuracy of anal cytology to cervical cytology in discriminating between histopathologic high grade and lesser grades of dysplasia when the reference standard biopsy is obtained using colposcope magnification.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2011

Nausea and Vomiting (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about nausea and vomiting as complications of cancer or its treatment. Approaches to the management of nausea and vomiting are discussed.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: September 2, 2015

Cancer-Related Post-traumatic Stress (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about post-traumatic stress and related symptoms in cancer patients, cancer survivors, and their family members. Assessment and treatment of these symptoms are discussed.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: July 7, 2015

Signs of colorectal cancer

Colorectal (bowel) cancer doesn't cause any symptoms at first and often goes undetected until it has reached a later stage. Certain symptoms may be signs of colorectal cancer, but they are usually caused by another, non-cancerous condition.Possible signs of colorectal cancer include:Blood in the stool or anal bleedingAnal mucus secretionChange in bowel movements over several weeks (for example constipation or diarrhea, sometimes alternating)The feeling of not being able to empty your bowels properlyPains or cramps in the abdomen (belly) or around the anusUnintentional weight lossTiredness and physical weaknessAll of these symptoms are nonspecific. In other words, they could also be caused by other diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammation of the lining of the stomach (gastritis), a peptic ulcer, a food intolerance or an inflammatory bowel disease. Bowel cancer is only rarely the cause, especially in people under the age of 40.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: January 26, 2017

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for the treatment of the late effects of radiotherapy

There is a risk of serious complications developing after radiation treatment (radiotherapy) for cancer (late radiation tissue injury (LRTI)). These problems can be very difficult to resolve and there is some doubt as to the best approaches to treatment. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) involves breathing oxygen in a specially designed chamber. It is used as a treatment to improve oxygen supply to damaged tissue (cells within the body) and support healing.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

The Value of FDG Positron Emission Tomography/Computerised Tomography (PET/CT) in Pre-Operative Staging of Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Economic Evaluation

In the UK, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common malignancy (behind lung and breast cancer) with 37,514 cases registered in 2006: around two-thirds (23,384) in the colon and one-third (14,130) in the rectum. Treatment of cancers of the colon can vary considerably, but surgical resection is the mainstay of treatment for curative intent. Following surgical resection, there is a comprehensive assessment of the tumour, it's invasion characteristics and spread (tumour staging). A number of imaging modalities are used in the pre-operative staging of CRCs including; computerised tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound imaging and positron emission tomography (PET). This report examines the role of CT in combination with PET scanning (PET/CT ‘hybrid’ scan). The research objectives are: to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and therapeutic impact of fluorine-18-deoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT for the pre-operative staging of primary, recurrent and metastatic cancer using systematic review methods; undertake probabilistic decision-analytic modelling (using Monte Carlo simulation); and conduct a value of information analysis to help inform whether or not there is potential worth in undertaking further research.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: September 2011
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No apparent differences in quality of life are found in rectal cancer patients with a permanent stoma when compared to non‐stoma patients.

For patients diagnosed with rectal cancer, surgery is the definite treatment. The surgical outcome is either restored bowel continuity, or the formation of a stoma. Traditionally the formation of a colostomy has been regarded as an unfavourable outcome, as the quality of life of stoma patients is believed to be inferior compared to that in non‐stoma patients. The included studies in this review do not support this assumption, although firm conclusions cannot be drawn.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Cervical cancer: Human papillomaviruses (HPV)

Human papillomaviruses, or HPV for short, are so common that most men and women will become infected at some point in their lives. These infections do not usually cause any problems. But some types of HPV can cause harmless warts, and others increase the risk of cervical cancer.Papillomaviruses are germs that can cause inflammation and changes of the skin. Some of them only infect humans, which is why they are called human papillomaviruses (HPV). They probably get into the skin and mucous membranes through small cuts or wounds and then multiply inside the cells. HPV is transmitted by direct contact with infected areas of skin or mucous membrane. HPV infection usually goes unnoticed, does not cause any symptoms and clears up on its own.More than 100 different types of HPV are currently known. Some cause warts on the skin (also called papillomas). About 40 types of HPV infect the skin in the genital area and are transmitted sexually. They are called “genital HPV”. Other types infect the face, hands or feet.Genital HPV viruses can be differentiated into high-risk types (hrHPV) and low-risk types (lrHPV). Low-risk HPV can cause warts in the genital area, which are also called condylomas. Although they are often unpleasant, they are not dangerous. The most common types of lrHPV are HPV 6 and 11.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: December 6, 2012

Anal dysplasia screening: evidence-based analysis

Bibliographic details: Medical Advisory Secretariat.  Anal dysplasia screening: evidence-based analysis. Toronto, ON, Canada: Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care . 2007

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2007

Abdominoperineal resection provides better local control but equivalent overall survival to local excision of anorectal malignant melanoma: a systematic review

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the extent of surgery is associated with survival in anorectal malignant melanoma (ARMM).

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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Systematic Review Methods in PubMed

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