Home > Search Results

Protects the kidneys from harmful effects caused by cisplatin and protects the saliva glands during radiation treatment.

UsesSide effectsLatest evidence reviewsResearch summaries for consumersBrand names

Results: 1 to 20 of 28

Clear

Thyroid cancer is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system consisting of several subtypes like papillary carcinoma (accounting for 80% of cases) and follicular carcinoma (accounting for 11% of cases). These are collectively referred to as 'differentiated thyroid cancer'. Treatment with radioactive iodine after surgery (ablation of the thyroid gland or 'thyroidectomy') is important for the detection of metastatic disease and for the destruction of the remaining thyroid tissue with microscopic cancer. After radioactive iodine treatment, adverse effects may happen in the salivary glands and cause salivary gland swelling and pain, usually involving the parotid. The symptoms may develop immediately after a therapeutic dose of radioactive iodine or months later and progress in intensity with time. Secondary complications reported include dry mouth ('xerostomia') and taste alterations.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

OBJECTIVE: The effectiveness of amifostine in the prevention of cisplatin ototoxicity remains controversial. The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine whether amifostine is successful in preventing ototoxicity secondary to cisplatin chemotherapy.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

We reviewed the evidence of the effectiveness of any medical intervention to prevent hearing loss in children with cancer treated with platinum‐based therapy (that is, including the anti‐cancer drugs cisplatin, carboplatin, oxaliplatin, or a combination of these). We also looked at anti‐cancer effectiveness, side effects other than hearing loss and quality of life.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of amifostine in diminishing radiotherapy side effects and whether or not it protects the tumor.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2006

BACKGROUND: Controversy exists on whether amifostine can reduce the efficacy and decrease the side effects of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated by radiotherapy. The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of amifostine in NSCLC patients treated with radiotherapy.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

BACKGROUND: Amifostine is the most clinical used chemical radioprotector, but its effect in patients treated with radiation is not consistent.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

This review found that amifostine did not reduce overall survival and progression-free survival in patients treated with radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. These conclusions should be treated with caution given the potential for missing data.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2011

This review assessed amifostine as a radioprotectant for patients with squamous cell head and neck cancer. The authors' concluded that amifostine is an effective treatment option for the reduction of acute and chronic xerostomia. Although some details of the review methodology were omitted making it difficult to assess its overall quality, the authors did highlight limitations in the evidence base.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2003

This review concluded that amifostine has no effect on tumour response in patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer treated with radiotherapy alone or in combination with chemotherapy. However, interpretation of the results is limited by the small data set and uncertain quality of the included studies.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2007

Problems with saliva production and salivary glands are a significant and mostly permanent side effect for people after radiotherapy treatment to the head and neck. When this occurs the condition is known as dry mouth or xerostomia. Dry mouth is not measurable and is a subjective or personal expression of how the mouth feels. It can have other causes and is a consequence of the production of less saliva or by the consistency of saliva. The rate of flow of saliva in an individual's mouth however can be measured. People who have dry mouth have a reduced quality of life. They can experience issues with taste and general discomfort, difficulties chewing, swallowing and speaking as well as tooth decay, thrush and other infections of the mouth. A wide range of drugs that work in different ways have been used to try and prevent problems with salivary glands caused by radiotherapy. Unfortunately there is currently not enough evidence to show which drugs or which type of drugs are most effective.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

This report is an update of a Comparative Effectiveness Review (CER) published in final form in May 2010 on the benefits and harms of radiotherapy (RT) to treat patients with head and neck cancer (CER No. 20). RT modalities included two-dimensional RT (2DRT), three-dimensional conformal RT (3DCRT), intensity-modulated RT (IMRT), and proton-beam RT (PBT).

Comparative Effectiveness Review - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: December 2014

This review assessed the efficacy of interventions for the prevention of head and neck radiotherapy- and/or chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis. The authors concluded that no individual intervention is capable of preventing oral mucositis completely. Given a number of issues with the review methodology and reporting, it is not possible to determine the reliability of this conclusion.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2006

We reviewed the evidence about the effect of treatments to prevent or reduce damage to nerves from the anticancer (chemotherapy) drug cisplatin or other platinum‐containing drugs.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Treatment for cancer (including bone marrow transplant) can cause oral mucositis (severe ulcers in the mouth). This painful condition can cause difficulties in eating, drinking and swallowing, and may also be associated with infections which may require the patient to stay longer in hospital. Different strategies are used to try and prevent this condition, and the review of trials found that some of these are effective. Two interventions, cryotherapy (ice chips) and keratinocyte growth factor (palifermin®) showed some benefit in preventing mucositis. Sucralfate is effective in reducing the severity of mucositis, and a further seven interventions, aloe vera, amifostine, intravenous glutamine, granulocyte‐colony stimulating factor (G‐CSF), honey, laser and antibiotic lozenges containing polymixin/tobramycin/amphotericin (PTA) showed weaker evidence of benefit. These were evaluated in patients with different types of cancer, undergoing different types of cancer treatment. Benefits may be restricted to the disease and treatment combinations evaluated.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Anthracyclines are among the most effective chemotherapy treatments available for various types of cancer. However, there is a risk of damage to the heart (cardiotoxicity) depending on the cumulative dose. Certain drugs might prevent this damage, but for many of these drugs, the review authors found no high quality evidence about whether they were effective in protecting the heart and they were unable to draw conclusions. For dexrazoxane, the review authors found 10 studies enrolling over 1600 patients. These studies provided evidence that dexrazoxane prevented heart damage without interfering with the anti‐tumour effects of anthracycline treatment. Patients who got dexrazoxane with their anthracycline treatment had about one third of the risk of heart failure compared to patients who got anthracyclines without dexrazoxane. Dexrazoxane had no effect on survival. We can't be sure about whether it had any undesirable side effects.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Expert-reviewed information summary about oral complications, such as mucositis and salivary gland dysfunction, that occur in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy or radiation therapy to the head and neck.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: December 16, 2016

The study was unable to compare the clinical and cost-effectiveness of platinum-based therapies with non-platinum-based therapies for platinum sensitive ovarian cancer. In people with platinum-sensitive disease, paclitaxel plus platinum could be considered cost-effective compared with platinum therapies alone at a threshold of £30,000 per additional quality-adjusted life-year. In people with disease which is resistant or refractory to platinum it is unlikely that topotecan would be considered cost-effective compared with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: January 2015

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of childhood acute myeloid leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and other myeloproliferative disorders.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: April 4, 2017

AHRQ recognizes that periodic assessments of the evidence base supporting each of the comparative effectiveness reviews is an important and necessary part of the Effective Health Care (EHC) Program. The rapidity with which new research findings accumulate makes it imperative that the evidence be assessed periodically to determine the need for a full-scale update. The EHC Program, then, initiated concurrent and parallel work to address this need both methodologically and programmatically. The development of methods guidance for updating was initiated to inform the research of systematic reviewers. This methodologic guidance will supplement the EHC Methods Guide for Comparative Effectiveness Reviews (www.effectiveheathcare.gov). In parallel with the methods effort, an initial, rapid program assessment was commissioned to assess the need for the findings of the CERs completed to that point to be updated. The Southern California Evidence-based Practice Center (SCEPC) was tasked with conducting this assessment. Findings from the assessment were presented to AHRQ for consideration within the usual program criteria to prioritize the topics for updating within the EHC Program. This document presents the findings from the assessment for public information and transparency.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: September 10, 2009

This guidance updates and replaces NICE clinical guideline 24 (published February 2005).

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Cancer (UK).

Version: April 2011

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

See all (58)...

Systematic Review Methods in PubMed

See all (1)...

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...