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Surgical treatment for cataract caused by aging changes in the lens which reduce its transparency and leads to visual impairment

Cataract is a major cause of global blindness, accounting for 50% to 80% in developing countries. The number of people blind from cataract is expected to rise due to the increase in life expectancy. Aging causes changes in the lens protein leading to opacification of the lens. These changes are often bilateral although maybe asymmetric. Symptoms from cataracts include glare, blurred vision, progressive decrease in visual function and blindness. Surgery is currently the only treatment option once the lens has opacified and vision is decreasing. The indication for surgery is based on whether the patient's reduced visual function interferes with their quality of life. Different surgical techniques have been developed to remove the cloudy lens which is replaced either by an intraocular lens (positioned in the posterior chamber or the anterior chamber of the eye), aphakic glasses or contact lens. There are four main forms of cataract extraction surgery: intracapsular (ICCE), extracapsular (ECCE), phacoemulsification (PHACO) and manual small incision (MSICS). The review authors searched the medical literature and identified 17 randomised controlled trials (9627 participants) investigating the different surgical interventions. Six of these trials suggested that PHACO gives a better outcome than ECCE. They suggest a better uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) following PHACO than ECCE but the majority of the trials showed no difference in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) between the two groups. The costs per procedure were not markedly different between the two techniques in a UK based study, however, a Malaysian study showed ECCE to be significantly cheaper. A study comparing MSICS and ECCE, advocated MSICS as the procedure of choice due to equal costs and better visual results. Two studies compared the results of PHACO and MSICS. Phacoemulsification having a significantly higher proportion of patients with UCVA > 6/18 (81.1% versus 71%) but there was no difference in BSCVA. Trials comparing costs of PHACO and MSICS are important for future research. Manual small incision surgery offers an alternative technique in developing countries as it provides acceptable visual outcomes when compared to PHACO yet is likely to be more economical as it avoids the initial outlay of costs of PHACO. It is important to remember that the studies in this review were based in a variety of countries and situations (hospital based or cataract camps); a knowledge of the setting is vital before drawing conclusions from the data.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on cognitive function with aging. dementia, and neurological disease

Bibliographic details: MacLean C H, Issa A M, Newberry S J, Mojica W A, Morton S C, Garland R H, Hilton L G, Traina S B, Shekelle P G.  Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on cognitive function with aging. dementia, and neurological disease. Rockville, MD, USA: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment; 114. 200515777112

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2005

Effect of advanced glycation end product intake on inflammation and aging: a systematic review

Aging is associated with a chronic low-grade inflammatory status that contributes to chronic diseases such as age-related muscle wasting, kidney disease, and diabetes mellitus. Since advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are known to be proinflammatory, this systematic review examined the relation between the dietary intake of AGEs and inflammatory processes. The PubMed and Web of Science databases were screened systematically. Seventeen relevant studies in humans or animals were included. The intervention studies in humans showed mainly a decrease in inflammation in subjects on a low-AGE diet, while an increase in inflammation in subjects on a high-AGE diet was less apparent. About half of the observational studies found a relationship between inflammatory processes and AGEs in food. When the results are considered together, the dietary intake of AGEs appears to be related to inflammatory status and the level of circulating AGEs. Moreover, limiting AGE intake may lead to a decrease in inflammation and chronic diseases related to inflammatory status. Most of the trials were conducted in patients with chronic kidney disease or diabetes, and thus additional studies in healthy individuals are needed. Further investigation is needed to elucidate the effects of lifetime exposure of dietary AGEs on aging and health.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Drugs that aim to reduce the loss of water from red blood cells in people with sickle cell disease

We reviewed the evidence to assess the relative risks and benefits of drugs to rehydrate sickled red blood cells.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

The effectiveness of interventions for ageing workers on (early) retirement, work ability and productivity: a systematic review

PURPOSE: To systematically summarise the literature on the effects of interventions for ageing workers that address work-related measures of sustainable employability, i.e. (early) retirement, work ability and work productivity.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Prevalence of and interventions for sarcopenia in ageing adults: a systematic review. Report of the International Sarcopenia Initiative (EWGSOP and IWGS)

OBJECTIVE: to examine the clinical evidence reporting the prevalence of sarcopenia and the effect of nutrition and exercise interventions from studies using the consensus definition of sarcopenia proposed by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP).

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Aging techniques for deep vein thrombosis: a systematic review

Deep vein thrombosis is common with an incidence of 1 in 1000. Acute thrombus removal for extensive proximal deep vein thrombosis using catheter-directed techniques highlights the need for accurate assessment of thrombus age. This systematic review summarises experimental and clinical evidence of imaging techniques for aging deep vein thrombosis. Ultrasound elastography and magnetic resonance imaging were highlighted as the most studied imaging modalities. Elastography was shown to distinguish between acute and chronic clots, despite demonstrating difficulty in accurate aging of clots older than 10 days in rat models. Elastography is noted as a feasible adjunct to current first-line imaging for deep vein thrombosis using duplex ultrasonography. Combinations of magnetic resonance imaging techniques can identify acute, sub-acute and chronic thrombi using endogenous contrast agents and provide objective standardisation of the diagnostic process, with reduced onus upon operator dependency. Further validation is required of these novel imaging techniques prior to clinical implementation for deep vein thrombosis aging.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Can aging in place be cost effective? A systematic review

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To systematically review cost, cost-minimization and cost-effectiveness studies for assisted living technologies (ALTs) that specifically enable older people to 'age in place' and highlight what further research is needed to inform decisions regarding aging in place.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Motorized mobility scooters: the use of training/intervention and technology for improving driving skills in aging adults – a mini-review

BACKGROUND: Motorized mobility scooters (MMS) have become the most acceptable powered assistive device for those with impaired mobility, who have sufficient upper body strength and dexterity, and postural stability. Although several benefits have been attributed to MMS usage, there are likewise risks of use, including injuries and even deaths.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Factors influencing acceptance of technology for aging in place: a systematic review

PURPOSE: To provide an overview of factors influencing the acceptance of electronic technologies that support aging in place by community-dwelling older adults. Since technology acceptance factors fluctuate over time, a distinction was made between factors in the pre-implementation stage and factors in the post-implementation stage.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

The effects of whole-body vibration training in aging adults: a systematic review

This review concluded that the available research on whole body vibration training in older adults was methodologically weak and should be interpreted cautiously. Some studies showed improvements in muscle performance, balance and functional mobility. Consistent improvements in hip and tibia, but not lumbar spine, bone density were found. A relatively limited search and poor reporting may limit the reliability of these cautious conclusions.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2009

Is regular exercise a friend or foe of the aging immune system? A systematic review

The review concluded that regular (particularly aerobic) exercise appeared to benefit the immune system in healthy older adults and help to offset diminished adaptive responses and chronic inflammation. In view of concerns about aspects of the review methods (such as a lack of details of statistical analysis) the reliability of the authors' conclusions is unclear.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2008

Integrative review of physical activity intervention research with aging adults

This review assessed interventions to increase physical activity in older adults. The authors concluded that the interventions did increase physical activity in some older adults, but that further research is required. The review examined many types of interventions but was unable to determine why some interventions were effective and others were not.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2003

Omega 3 fatty acids in the elderly

Population ageing affects the entire world population. Also at world level one can observe a sharp increase in the proportion of older people. The challenge posed by population ageing translates into ensuring that the extra years of life will be as good as possible, free from high-cost dependency. Omega-3 fatty acids are now generally recognized as potential key nutrients to prevent the pathological conditions associated to the aging process. Ageing physiological process, its association with quality of life and the impact of omega-3 fatty acids intake and/or status is the focus of the present review. This report deals with the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on normal aging of older adults ( ≥ 65 years) mainly on the effects such as nutritional status itself, cognition, bone health, muscle tonus, and general health status. The preliminary broad search of the literature on the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on normal aging yielded 685 citations. Forty two full text papers were checked for inclusion and thirty six studies were finally included in this review. It may be concluded that paradoxically even though the elderly population is the largest one, the number of studies and the methodology employed clearly lacks of sufficient evidence to establish definite conclusions on the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on aging metabolism without pathological conditions and on quality of life.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

Physical activity and psychological well-being in advanced age: a meta-analysis of intervention studies

A meta-analysis examined data from 36 studies linking physical activity to well-being in older adults without clinical disorders. The weighted mean-change effect size for treatment groups (d(C). = 0.24) was almost 3 times the mean for control groups (d(C). = 0.09). Aerobic training was most beneficial (d(C). = 0.29), and moderate intensity activity was the most beneficial activity level (d(C). = 0.34). Longer exercise duration was less beneficial for several types of well-being, though findings are inconclusive. Physical activity had the strongest effects on self-efficacy (d(C).= 0.38), and improvements in cardiovascular status, strength, and functional capacity were linked to well-being improvement overall. Social-cognitive theory is used to explain the effect of physical activity on well-being.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2005

Multi-modal exercise programs for older adults

BACKGROUND: Various modalities of exercise have been demonstrated to improve physical function and quality of life in older adults. Current guidelines stress the importance of multi-modal exercise for this cohort, including strengthening exercises, cardiovascular, flexibility and balance training. There is a lack of evidence, however, that simultaneously prescribed doses and intensities of strength, aerobic, and balance training in older adults are both feasible and capable of eliciting changes in physical function and quality of life.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2007

Is power training or conventional resistance training better for function in elderly persons? A meta-analysis

OBJECTIVE: to determine the effects of power training with high movement velocity compared with conventional resistance training with low movement velocity for older community-dwelling people.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2011

Laxatives as a risk factor for iatrogenic falls in elderly subjects: myth or reality?

BACKGROUND: The multifactorial nature of falls is well known, and several studies on falls in the elderly have reported that laxatives can be a risk factor, but without attempting to discuss possible mechanisms to explain this role.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2010

Treatment of ulcerative colitis in the elderly: a systematic review

Bibliographic details: Baggenstos BR, Hanson BJ, Shaukat A.  Treatment of ulcerative colitis in the elderly: a systematic review. Clinical Medicine Insights: Geriatrics 2013; 6 Available from: http://www.la-press.com/treatment-of-ulcerative-colitis-in-the-elderly-a-systematic-review-article-a3631

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

Effekter av styrketraning pa bentathet hos postmenopausala kvinnor: en litteraturstudie [Effects of strength training on the bone density of postmenopausal women: a review]

Bibliographic details: Sundgren E, Rydenholm A, Hallin P.  Effekter av styrketraning pa bentathet hos postmenopausala kvinnor: en litteraturstudie [Effects of strength training on the bone density of postmenopausal women: a review]. Nordisk Fysioterapi 2004; 8(3): 104-112

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2004

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