Home > Search Results

Results: 18

Antibiotic prophylaxis for first trimester induced abortion

Infection of the upper genital tract, including the uterus and fallopian tubes, can cause complications after induced abortion. Antibiotics given around the time of the abortion (prophylaxis) could prevent this complication. We found 19 randomised controlled trials that looked at the effect of antibiotic prophylaxis on post‐abortal upper genital tract infection amongst women requesting induced abortion in the first trimester of pregnancy. We looked at the effect of any antibiotic prophylaxis regimen on the outcome. Overall, the risk of post‐abortal upper genital tract infection in women receiving antibiotics was 59% that of women who received placebo. There were, however, differences between the trial results over and above what would be expected by chance alone. It should be noted that, if the infection is caused by a sexually transmitted organism, antibiotic prophylaxis will not protect the woman from becoming re‐infected if her sexual partner has not been treated. None of the trials was done in lower or middle income countries, which is where the risk of post‐abortal complications is highest. Further trials are needed to determine whether combinations of antibiotics can prevent more infections than single antibiotics, or whether antibiotic prophylaxis should be restricted to women with positive results of screening tests before the abortion.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Planned abortion after three months of pregnancy can be done using several medicines. This review looked at which medical procedure is the best.

There are many medical methods for planned termination of pregnancy in the second trimester of pregnancy (abortion after three months). We did a search of the scientific literature to find out which is the best method. We identified 38 studies and came to the conclusion that misoprostol is the drug of choice for medical pregnancy termination, preferably in combination with mifepristone which facilitates the effectiveness of misoprostol. Misoprostol works best when it is administered into the vagina. Women who had previously given birth could take misoprostol by mouth (under the tongue). Irrespective of the medication used for second trimester termination there is a considerable risk of surgical intervention because of vaginal bleeding or incomplete abortion.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Abortion after three months of pregnancy can be done by an operation or with medicines. This review looked at which way is better.

We did computer searches to find studies that compared any operation to any medicine used for abortion at this stage of pregnancy. We wrote to researchers and looked through book chapters and other articles to find more studies.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

Medical methods for early termination of pregnancy can be safe and effective.

There are several different surgical techniques for early termination of pregnancy (abortion in the first three months). Several drugs can also be prescribed alone or in combination to terminate early pregnancy. This is called medical abortion, and uses the hormones prostaglandins and/or mifepristone (an antiprogesterone often called RU486), and/or methotrexate. The review of trials found that medical methods for abortion in early pregnancy can be safe and effective, with the most evidence of effectiveness for a combination of mifepristone and misoprostol (a prostaglandin). Almost all of the trials were done in well‐resourced hospitals where women returned for check‐up.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Medical treatment for early fetal death (less than 24 weeks)

Medical treatments for inevitable miscarriage.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Medical methods for early termination of pregnancy can be safe and effective

There are several different surgical techniques for abortion during the first three months. Several drugs can also be prescribed alone or in combination to terminate early pregnancy. This is called medical abortion, and uses the hormones prostaglandins and/or mifepristone (an antiprogesterone often called RU486), and/or methotrexate. This review of trials found that medical methods for abortion in early pregnancy can be safe and effective, with the most evidence of effectiveness for a combination of mifepristone and misoprostol (a prostaglandin). Almost all of the trials were done in well‐resourced settings where women returned for a check‐up.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Medical treatments for incomplete miscarriage

Miscarriage is when a pregnant woman loses her baby before the baby would be considered able to survive outside the womb, i.e. before 24 weeks' gestation. Miscarriage occurs in about 10% to 15% of pregnancies and the signs are bleeding, usually with some abdominal pain and cramping. The traditional management of miscarriage was surgery but this Cochrane Review asks if medical treatments can be another management option for the woman.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

The review found that both, D&C and vacuum aspiration, are safe and effective methods for first trimester termination of pregnancy and complications are rare.

There are several different surgical techniques for early termination of pregnancy (abortion in the first three months). These are dilatation and curettage (D&C to scrape out the contents of the uterus), vacuum aspiration (sucking out the contents of the uterus with a manual or power‐operated device). Hysterotomy (surgery through the uterus, like caesarean section) is not commonly used. The cervix (opening of the uterus) can be prepared beforehand with hormones to minimise the risk of damage. The review found that both, D&C and vacuum aspiration, are safe and effective methods for first trimester termination of pregnancy and complications are rare. The review does not reveal women's or surgeons' preference of one method over the other.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Preparation of the uterine cervix before evacuation of second‐trimester pregnancy

Abortion during the second trimester of pregnancy accounts for 10‐15% of abortions performed worldwide (Finer 2005; Stat. Service. 2005; WHO 1997). Surgical evacuation, called dilation and evacuation (D&E), is the preferred method of second‐trimester abortion, as opposed to induction of labor, in most developed countries where D&E and medical methods are both available (Lohr 2008; RCOG 2004). In order to perform a D&E, surgical instruments must pass through the cervix, the opening to the uterus, into the uterus. In order for these instruments to pass through the cervix safely, the cervix must be opened prior to the procedure. This process of opening the cervix prior to a D&E is called cervical preparation and can be done with medications or with small rod‐like devices that are placed inside the cervix. The most commonly used medications for cervical preparation are called prostaglandins. These medications can be taken orally or placed in the vagina or the cheeks and need to be taken several hours before the procedure. They work by softening, thinning, and opening the cervix so that at the time of the procedure it is possible to further open the cervix if needed and to place the instruments through the cervix into the body of the uterus. The small‐rod like devices used for cervical preparation are called cervical dilators. Dilators are placed inside the cervix several hours before the procedure or even a day or two before the procedure. In general, dilators work by absorbing moisture from the cervix which causes the dilators to swell and get larger. As the diameter of these dilators expands the dilator puts radial pressure on the cervical walls and causes the cervix to open.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Chinese herbal medicines for threatened miscarriage

Miscarriage or spontaneous abortion is the loss of a pregnancy without medical or mechanical means before completion of the 20th week of gestation. The fetus is not sufficiently developed to have been able to survive outside the mother’s womb. Threatened miscarriage is a very common in early pregnancy. Most threatened miscarriages occur in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy and become evident as vaginal bleeding, abdominal and low back pain that persist for days or weeks. So far, therapies have limited effectiveness in preventing early pregnancy loss due to threatened miscarriage. Chinese herbal medicines are a part of Traditional Chinese Medicines and are made up of products from plants and some animal and mineral substances. They have become very popular and are commonly used as an alternative treatment for threatened miscarriage.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Can health care providers who are not doctors perform abortions as well as doctors?

Unsafe abortion causes death and disability and remains a major public health concern in developing countries. Most of these deaths and disabilities could be prevented if safe and legal abortion were provided by trained people. This review looked at whether using mid‐level providers (health care providers who are not doctors) to perform abortions is safe. It also looked at whether the abortions provided by mid‐level providers worked as well as those provided by doctors.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Expectant care (waiting) versus surgical treatment for miscarriage

Miscarriage is pregnancy failure before 14 weeks, which is common in early pregnancy. Such a loss in early pregnancy can affect a woman’s physical and mental health. Doctors often suggest surgery such as dilation and curettage (D and C) or vacuum aspiration to complete the process. Surgery might cause problems such as trauma, heavy bleeding, or infection. Expectant management means waiting for the miscarriage to finish on its own, and may involve bed rest, examination by ultrasound, and antibiotics. This review looked at whether expectant management works as well as surgery for miscarriage.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Anaesthesia for surgical evacuation of an incomplete miscarriage

Miscarriage is when a pregnant woman loses her baby before the baby would be considered able to survive outside the womb. An incomplete miscarriage occurs when all the products of conception are not expelled through the cervix, which often happens when a woman miscarries before the 12th week of pregnancy. Medical treatment is available but traditionally, surgery has been used to remove any retained tissue. It could be done by curettage or with vacuum aspiration. It is a quick procedure but is associated with pain and discomfort and many anaesthetic techniques are used. These include general anaesthesia, sedation and analgesia, or regional nerve blocks such as paracervical block. We examined the existing randomised controlled studies to compare the effect of these anaesthetic techniques on patient satisfaction, postoperative pain, nausea and vomiting and any other side effects and maternal mortality.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Culture media for human pre‐implantation embryos for in assisted reproductive technology cycles 

Embryo culture refers to the culture of human gametes and embryos during in vitro fertilisation treatments. The procedure is initiated when eggs and sperm are combined in a culture dish and it ends with the transfer of the resulting embryo to the uterus. The culture period varies between one and six days, and the embryo culture process is vital to the success of any IVF or ICSI procedure. The type of culture medium used may affect embryo quality and hence the success rate of the treatment. Despite its importance, it is unknown which culture medium is most effective and safest.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Regular (ICSI) versus ultra‐high magnification (IMSI) sperm selection for assisted reproduction

Background: sperm micromanipulation, such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), is very useful for treating couples in which the male partner has a reduced sperm concentration or motility, or both. Recently, a new method of sperm selection named 'motile sperm organelle morphology examination' (MSOME) has been described, which analyses sperm under ultra‐high powered (6000x) magnification. Initial studies have shown that intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI), using spermatozoa selected under high magnification, is associated with higher pregnancy rates in couples with repeated implantation failures.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

The effect of administering pregnancy hormone in the womb of subfertile women undergoing assisted reproduction

Subfertility affects 15% of couples and represents the inability to conceive (become pregnant) naturally following 12 months of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. Assisted reproduction refers to procedures involving handling of both sperm and eggs in the laboratory in a petri dish to create embryos that will be transferred into the womb (embryo transfer (ET)). It is a key option for many subfertile couples who want to have a baby. Most women undergoing assisted reproduction treatment will reach the stage of ET but the proportion of embryos that survive following ET has remained small since the mid‐1990s. The pregnancy hormone (human chorionic gonadotropin) is released by the embryo and has an important role in the early stages of pregnancy. Administering natural or synthetic pregnancy hormone in the womb of subfertile women undergoing assisted reproduction treatment is a novel approach that has been suggested to increase the chance of having a baby.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Replacing FSH by hCG to complete follicular growth in women undergoing assisted reproduction

When use of low‐dose hCG to replace FSH was compared with conventional COH, there was very low quality evidence compatible with appreciable benefit, no effect or appreciable harm for the intervention, suggesting that for women with a 14% chance of achieving live birth using a conventional COH, the chance of achieving live birth using low‐dose hCG would be between 10% and 45%. Similarly, there was very low quality evidence suggesting that for women with a 3% risk of OHSS using a conventional COH, the risk using low‐dose hCG was also compatible with either benefit or harm, and would be between 0% and 4%.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about factors that may increase the risk of developing breast cancer and about research aimed at the prevention of this disease.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: June 14, 2017

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...