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We undertook this systematic review to assist the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) in updating its 2003 recommendation on cervical cancer screening. During the planning phase of this evidence review on cervical cancer screening, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) decided to fund a separate modeling study to be conducted simultaneously. The USPSTF determined that the scope for both the systematic review and the modeling study would focus on important clinical questions that could inform effective use of screening in practice. This systematic review focuses on when to begin screening and on updating test accuracy and harms data on liquid-based cytology (LBC) and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, either alone or in combination with cytology. The modeling study focuses on the effectiveness of strategies that use different ages at which to begin screening and different screening intervals.1 These two reports are intended to provide the USPSTF with complementary information to update its recommendation on cervical cancer screening.

Evidence Syntheses - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: May 2011

Wounds may result from physical, mechanical, or thermal damage, or develop from an underlying medical disorder and include conditions such as pressure ulcers, lacerations, burns, arterial or venous ulcers, and dermatological disorders. Wound care involves accurate assessment and appropriate management strategies and may require specialist consultations which may not always be easily accessible or may be time consuming. Telemedicine offers an alternative option. It is the delivery of health care through telecommunication between the patient with or without the local health care provider and remotely situated specialists. Technology used for telemedicine can range from a simple telephone conversation with the health care provider to complex systems with elaborate consultations with remote specialists at various locations, through live audio or videoconferencing. Telemedicine has been used in various clinical areas such as psychiatry, ophthalmology, and dermatology. Teledermatology consultation has been shown to be reliable and comparable to conventional clinic-based care. Imaging of the wound, uploading images and transferring them to the appropriate location play an important role in wound care involving telemedicine. The advent of high resolution digital cameras, computer technology, and specialized software has revolutionized the process of documentation of wounds. In recent times, personal wireless devices such as mobile phones are increasingly being used as a telemedicine technology. Mobile phones now have in-built cameras and data transfer capabilities and are often referred to as smartphones. The transmission of medical images and other data over mobile phone networks may facilitate remote medical consultations with specialists and enhance wound care management. However the safety and clinical efficacy of this modality of care needs to be assessed before it may be put in to widespread use.

Rapid Response Report: Summary with Critical Appraisal - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: May 16, 2014

While in its early years the HIV epidemic affected primarily the male and the young, nowadays the population living with HIV/AIDS comprises approximately 24 percent women, and its age composition has shifted towards older ages. Many women over 40 who live with HIV/AIDS also live with the medical and social conditions that accompany aging.

Technical Briefs - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: November 2016

The Payback Framework remains the most widely used approach to assessing the value of research investment although the field has expanded considerably. Monitoring of impact in the changing context of health services, and ongoing review of alternative methods of achieving this should be high priorities for research funders.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: October 2016

This guidance provides a summary of the clinical features associated with maltreatment (alerting features) that may be observed when a child presents to healthcare professionals. Its purpose is to raise awareness and help healthcare professionals who are not specialists in child protection to identify children who may be being maltreated. It does not give healthcare professionals recommendations on how to diagnose, confirm or disprove child maltreatment.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: July 2009

Atopic eczema (atopic dermatitis) is a chronic inflammatory itchy skin condition that develops in early childhood in the majority of cases. It is typically an episodic disease of exacerbation (flares, which may occur as frequently as two or three per month) and remissions, except for severe cases where it may be continuous. Certain patterns of atopic eczema are recognised. In infants, atopic eczema usually involves the face and extensor surfaces of the limbs and, while it may involve the trunk, the napkin area is usually spared. A few infants may exhibit a discoid pattern (circular patches). In older children flexural involvement predominates, as in adults. Diagnostic criteria are discussed in Chapter 3. As with other atopic conditions, such as asthma and allergic rhinitis (hay fever), atopic eczema often has a genetic component. In atopic eczema, inherited factors affect the development of the skin barrier, which can lead to exacerbation of the disease by a large number of trigger factors, including irritants and allergens. Many cases of atopic eczema clear or improve during childhood while others persist into adulthood, and some children who have atopic eczema `will go on to develop asthma and/or allergic rhinitis; this sequence of events is sometimes referred to as the ‘atopic march’. The epidemiology of atopic eczema is considered in Chapter 5, and the impact of the condition on children and their families/caregivers is considered in Sections 4.2 and 4.3.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: December 2007

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are common and a source of substantial morbidity in the United States. Behavioral sexual risk reduction counseling in primary care may help prevent STIs.

Evidence Syntheses - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: September 2014

Pregnancy, childbirth, postpartum and newborn care: a guide for essential practice (3rd edition) (PCPNC), has been updated to include recommendations from recently approved WHO guidelines relevant to maternal and perinatal health. These include pre-eclampsia & eclampsia; postpartum haemorrhage; postnatal care for the mother and baby; newborn resuscitation; prevention of mother-to- child transmission of HIV; HIV and infant feeding; malaria in pregnancy, interventions to improve preterm birth outcomes, tobacco use and second-hand exposure in pregnancy, post-partum depression, post-partum family planning and post abortion care.

World Health Organization.

Version: 2015

In light of recent guideline changes in the periodicity of cervical cancer screening, there is uncertainty surrounding the role of the routine screening pelvic examination during annual prevention visits.

Evidence Syntheses - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: March 2017

Penile cancer is highly curable when found early. Find out about risk factors, symptoms, tests to diagnose, prognosis, staging, and treatment for penile cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: April 14, 2017

This guideline aims to: identify and describe best practice for service organisation and delivery that will improve access, acceptability and use of services; identify and describe services that encourage, overcome barriers to and facilitate the maintenance of contact throughout pregnancy; describe additional consultations with and/or support and information for women with complex social factors, and their partners and families, that should be provided during pregnancy, over and above that described in the NICE guideline ‘Antenatal care: routine care for the healthy pregnant woman’ (2008) (clinical guideline 62); identify when additional midwifery care or referral to other members of the maternity team (obstetricians and other specialists) would be appropriate, and what that additional care should be.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: September 2010

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of vulvar cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: October 13, 2017

The routine pelvic examination has been a usual part of preventive care for women for many decades. In 2008, 63.4 million pelvic examinations were performed in the United States. Many women and providers believe that the routine pelvic exam should be included in an annual comprehensive well-woman visit. The exam consists of inspection of the external genitalia, speculum examination of the vagina and cervix, bimanual examination, and sometimes rectal or rectovaginal examination. Traditionally, the examination in the asymptomatic average risk women has been used to screen for pathology through palpation, visualization, and specimen collection.

Evidence-based Synthesis Program - Department of Veterans Affairs (US).

Version: September 2013

Since the publication of the WHO Guidelines for the management of sexually transmitted infections in 2003, changes in the epidemiology of STIs and advancements in prevention, diagnosis and treatment necessitate changes in STI management. These guidelines provide updated treatment recommendations for common infections caused by C. trachomatis based on the most recent evidence; they form one of several modules of guidelines for specific STIs. Other modules will focus on treatments for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhoea), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2; genital herpes) and Treponema pallidum (syphilis). In addition, future work will provide guidance for syphilis screening and treatment of pregnant women, STI syndromic approach, clinical management, STI prevention, and treatments of other STIs. It is strongly recommended that countries take updated global guidance into account as they establish standardized national protocols, adapting this guidance to the local epidemiological situation and antimicrobial susceptibility data.

World Health Organization.

Version: 2016

Since the publication of the WHO Guidelines for the management of sexually transmitted infections in 2003, changes in the epidemiology of STIs and advancements in prevention, diagnosis and treatment necessitate changes in STI management. There is an urgent need to update treatment recommendations for gonococcal infections to respond to changing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) patterns of N. gonorrhoeae. High-level resistance to previously recommended quinolones is widespread and decreased susceptibility to the extended-spectrum (third-generation) cephalosporins, another recommended first-line treatment in the 2003 guidelines, is increasing and several countries have reported treatment failures.

World Health Organization.

Version: 2016

Telemedicine uses telecommunication technology to transfer medical information. Due to the visual nature of a skin examination, telemedicine, specifically, teledermatology, may be a valuable tool in the diagnosis and management of dermatologic diseases for patients in rural areas (including rural Veterans Affairs Medical Centers and Community Based Outpatient Clinics) who may not have ready access to a dermatologist. Teledermatology may also be useful in primary care settings to triage cases and limit unnecessary dermatology clinic referrals. Although not the focus of this review, teledermatology may also be used to provide follow-up care or monitoring after an in-person dermatology visit. The objectives of this evidence synthesis project were to systematically review and summarize the scientific literature addressing: 1) teledermatology for the diagnosis of skin conditions, 2) teledermatology for the management of skin conditions, 3) clinical outcomes when teledermatology is used, 4) the cost of teledermatology compared with usual care (in-person dermatology), and 5) key elements of, and barriers to, successful teledermatology implementation.

Evidence-based Synthesis Program - Department of Veterans Affairs (US).

Version: January 2010

This guideline has been developed to advise on the treatment and management of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The guideline recommendations have been developed by a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, PTSD sufferers and guideline methodologists after careful consideration of the best available evidence. (The term ‘PTSD sufferer’ was chosen for use in the guideline on the basis of a survey conducted by sufferer members of the Guideline Development Group. People with the disorder were presented with a range of options such as ‘people with PTSD’, ‘patients with PTSD’ and ‘PTSD sufferer’ and asked to indicate which term they preferred; ‘PTSD sufferer’ was the term favoured by the majority.) It is intended that the guideline will be useful to clinicians and service commissioners in providing and planning high-quality care for those with PTSD while also emphasising the importance of the experience of care for patients and their families.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).

Version: 2005

The purpose of this report is to examine the clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and evidence-based guidelines regarding the use self-collected samples for sexually transmitted infections (STI) testing, as compared with samples collected by clinicians.

Rapid Response Report: Summary with Critical Appraisal - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: June 22, 2016

Bladder cancer is the seventh most common cancer in the UK, with just over 10,000 cases diagnosed each year (CRUK, 2013a). These are unevenly split between men (fourth most common cancer) and women (11th most common cancer).

NICE Guideline - National Collaborating Centre for Cancer (UK).

Version: February 2015

The Observational CER User's Guide serves as a resource for investigators and stakeholders when designing observational comparative effectiveness research (CER) studies, particularly those with findings that are intended to translate into decisions or actions. The User's Guide provides principles for designing research that will inform health care decisions of patients and other stakeholders. Furthermore, it serves as a reference for increasing the transparency of the methods used in a study and standardizing the review of protocols through checklists provided in every chapter.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: January 2013

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