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Review question: We reviewed evidence on the effects of brief school‐based interventions for substance use and substance‐related problem behaviours among adolescents. We found six studies.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

In developing countries, most people with mental, neurological and substance‐abuse (MNS) disorders do not receive adequate care mainly because of a lack of mental health professionals. Non‐specialist health workers, but also other professionals with health roles, such as teachers, may therefore have an important role to play in delivering MNS health care.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Dependence and abuse of methaqualone, a type of sedative‐hypnotic, is a major public health problem in parts of Africa and India. Treatment is highly variable and takes place in both in‐patient and out‐patient settings. Despite an extensive search of electronic databases, the internet, relevant conferences and contact with experts in the field, this review identified no randomised controlled trials of the effectiveness of treatment for Mandrax dependence and/or abuse. Currently no evidence exists for using one type of treatment over another.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

In this Cochrane review we aimed to measure the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for treating people who harmfully use, abuse or are dependent on benzodiazepines (BZDs). BZDs are a type of drug that can be used to treat people who have anxiety, panic disorder, insomnia and a range of other conditions. Long term use of BZDs is not generally recommended and can lead to physical and psychological dependence and withdrawal symptoms when patients reduce or stop using them. Previous systematic reviews, examining other drugs like heroin, cocaine or alcohol, have suggested some benefits of psychosocial interventions to reduce these substances. There has been no Cochrane review of psychosocial interventions to reduce BZD use.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Managed alcohol programmes (MAPs) are harm reduction initiatives that treat the alcohol abuse of vulnerable people by serving controlled amounts of alcohol on a daily schedule, with the goal of ensuring individuals consume safe alcoholic beverages in an environment that has been shown to retain vulnerable people in treatment programmes, decrease alcohol consumption and improve social functioning (decreasing criminal activity, seeking regular medical care and improving quality of life). As well as MAP, there are alternative interventions such as brief intervention, moderate drinking and abstinence oriented 12‐step programmes. With the exception of 12‐step programmes, which emphasise abstinence, these interventions are aimed at changing drinking patterns and reducing the associated behaviours. No experimental studies were available to demonstrate the effectiveness of MAPs in reducing alcohol use or antisocial behaviour compared with other treatments.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Tobacco use is a leading preventable cause of death worldwide, and smoking rates are especially high among people who are dependent on alcohol or other drugs. People who are being treated for alcohol or other drug addictions have not usually been offered treatment to help them stop smoking at the same time. There has been concern that trying to stop smoking might make people in treatment less likely to recover from other addictions.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

More than 76 million people worldwide have alcohol problems, and another 15 million have drug problems. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a psychological treatment that aims to help people cut down or stop using drugs and alcohol. The drug abuser and counsellor typically meet between one and four times for about one hour each time. The counsellor expresses that he or she understands how the clients feel about their problem and supports the clients in making their own decisions. He or she does not try to convince the client to change anything, but discusses with the client possible consequences of changing or staying the same. Finally, they discuss the clients' goals and where they are today relative to these goals. We searched for studies that had included people with alcohol or drug problems and that had divided them by chance into MI or a control group that either received nothing or some other treatment. We included only studies that had checked video or sound recordings of the therapies in order to be certain that what was given really was MI. The results in this review are based on 59 studies. The results show that people who have received MI have reduced their use of substances more than people who have not received any treatment. However, it seems that other active treatments, treatment as usual and being assessed and receiving feedback can be as effective as motivational interviewing. There was not enough data to conclude about the effects of MI on retention in treatment, readiness to change, or repeat convictions.The quality of the research forces us to be careful about our conclusions, and new research may change them.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

We reviewed the evidence about the effect of psychosocial interventions, such as contingency management (CM) and motivational interviewing based (MIB) techniques vs. usual care for pregnant women in outpatient illicit drug treatment programmes.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Treatment foster care (TFC) is a foster family‐based intervention that aims to provide young people (and, where appropriate, their families) with an individually tailored programme designed to help bring about positive changes in their lives. TFC was designed to help children whose difficulties or circumstances place them at risk of multiple placements and/or more restrictive placements such as hospital or secure residential or youth justice settings. This review set out to assess the impact of Treatment Foster Care on a range of outcomes for children and young people in such circumstances, including psychosocial and behavioural outcomes, delinquency, placement stability, and discharge status. Five studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. All were conducted in the USA. Four focussed on young delinquents or children with a range of behaviour problems. The fifth examined the effectiveness of TFC for young people in a state mental hospital. Findings indicate that TFC care may be a useful intervention to help place these usually hard to place children and young people in family settings. Results indicate some clinically meaningful decreases in: antisocial behaviour, the number of days children and young people running away from placement; the number of criminal referrals and the time spent in locked settings. There is some evidence that young people in Treatment Foster Care spent more time in treatment over the long‐term and more time at home. Examination of educational and employment outcomes showed improvements in school attendance, homework completion and finding work.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

Depressive disorders are common in children and adolescents, with suggested overall prevalence rates for adolescents (13 to 18 years) being 5.7% and for children (under 13 years) 2.8%. Common symptoms of depression in children and adolescents include low mood, a loss of interest in once enjoyed activities, difficulties with concentration and motivation, changes in appetite and sleep, irritability, physical symptoms such as headaches or stomach aches and in some cases thoughts of suicide. If left untreated, depressive disorders in the younger years are likely to continue into adulthood, and can be increasingly difficult to treat as time goes on. Both psychological therapies and antidepressant medication can be used to treat depression in children and adolescents. Psychological therapies, sometimes called 'talking therapies', involve working with a qualified therapist to treat the depression. Psychological therapies in common use are cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) and psychodynamic therapy. There are many different types of antidepressant medication, all of which have been developed specifically to work on chemicals in the brain that are believed to be linked to depression. Research has been undertaken on psychological therapies and antidepressant medication, alone and in combination, to asses the effects of these interventions on depression in children and adolescents.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Health and education are strongly connected: healthy children achieve better results at school, which in turn are associated with improved health later in life. This relationship between health and education forms the basis of the World Health Organization's (WHO’s) Health Promoting Schools (HPS) framework, an approach to promoting health in schools that addresses the whole school environment. Although the HPS framework is used in many schools, we currently do not know if it is effective. This review aimed to assess whether the HPS framework can improve students’ health and well‐being and their performance at school.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

OBJECTIVE: To synthesize the substance-dependence researches focusing on rehab treatment phase.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2009

This clinical guideline on alcohol-use disorders was commissioned by NICE and developed by the National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health, and sets out the evidence for the treatment and management of harmful drinking and alcohol dependence in adults and in young people aged 10 to 17 years.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).

Version: 2011

Some people with asthma need to rely on corticosteroid drugs to control their asthma. Corticosteroids reduce the inflammation (swelling) of the airways (passages to the lungs). Long‐term use has serious adverse effects, so ways to try and cut down on the need for corticosteroids are sometimes tried. Methotrexate may also be able to reduce inflammation, and is sometimes used for arthritis. Its adverse effects include headaches, dizziness, fatigue and altered moods, and stomach, lung and liver complications. The review of trials found methotrexate provides little relief for asthma, and adds its own adverse effects.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

There are high rates of alcohol and drug use by many adolescents. Four randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were identified. All four RCTs were in the US and with adolescents described as deprived, and most were minority group adolescents. Two RCTs tested the "Across Ages" mentoring programme, one the Big Brothers/Big Sisters mentoring programme, and one an intervention with adolescents whose parents were HIV+. Two RCTs found that mentoring reduced rates of initiation of use of alcohol, and one reduced initiation of use of drugs. No adverse effects were identified. The relative youth of three of the samples made it unlikely that the interventions would be effective due to low baseline rates of usage. The studies assessed formal programmes, and as most mentors are informal their work remains un assessed.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

There have been a limited number of  rigorously conducted interventions to modify the sexual behaviour of homeless youth 12‐24 years of age to prevent them from acquiring HIV.  More research is required to identify effective strategies for this population. In this review, we systematically searched published and unpublished accounts of interventions that had been rigorously tested . We found three eligible independently conducted randomised controlled trials testing three different interventions. All three were conducted in the United States, amongst a total of 615 homeless, male and female youth. Due to the varied delivery of interventions, outcome measurement and reporting, we were unable to aggregate outcomes to estimate summary of effect measures. The significant risk of bias associated with the three included studies and their heterogeneity necessitate caution in interpreting the effectiveness of interventions to modify sexual risk behaviour for preventing HIV in homeless youth. While studies among homeless youth are highly challenging, future trials should comply with rigorous methodology in design, delivery, outcome measurement and reporting as well as consider the changing facets of homeless youth when designing HIV prevention tools.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

We conducted a Cochrane systematic review of 53 well‐designed experimental studies that examined the effectiveness of school‐based universal programs for the prevention of alcohol misuse in young people. The studies were divided into two major groups based on the nature of the prevention program: 1) programs targeting specifically prevention or reduction of alcohol misuse and 2) generic programs with wider focus for prevention (e.g., other drug use/abuse, antisocial behavior). In the review we found studies that showed no effects of the preventive program, as well as studies that demonstrated statistically significant effects. There was no easily discernible pattern in program characteristics that would distinguish studies with positive results from those with no effects. Most commonly observed positive effects across programs were for drunkenness and binge drinking. In conclusion, current evidence suggests that certain generic psychosocial and developmental prevention programs can be effective and could be considered as policy and practice options. These include the Life Skills Training Program, the Unplugged program, and the Good Behaviour Game.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

A number of policy directives are aimed at enabling people with drug problems to live healthy, crime‐free lives. Drug‐using offenders with co‐occurring mental health problems represent a group who access treatment for a variety of different reasons. The complexity of the two problems makes the treatment and rehabilitation of this group particularly challenging.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Drug‐using offenders naturally represent a socially excluded group where drug use is more prevalent than in the rest of the population. A growing number of female offenders are being incarcerated for drug‐related crimes. For this reason, it is important to investigate what we know about what works for female offenders.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Results of eight randomised controlled trials of Multisystemic Therapy (MST) conducted in the USA, Canada, and Norway indicate that it is premature to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of MST compared with other services. Results are inconsistent across studies that vary in quality and context. There is no information about the effects of MST compared with no treatment. There is no evidence that MST has harmful effects.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

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