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EOS 2D/3D X-ray Imaging System: A Systematic Review and Economic Evaluation

EOS is a biplane X-ray imaging system manufactured by EOS Imaging (formerly Biospace Med, Paris, France). It uses slot-scanning technology to produce a high-quality image with less irradiation than standard imaging techniques.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: March 2012

Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about oral complications, such as mucositis and salivary gland dysfunction, that occur in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy or radiation therapy to the head and neck.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: December 16, 2016

Advanced Breast Cancer: Diagnosis and Treatment

Breast cancer is the most common cancer for women in England and Wales, with about 37,000 new cases diagnosed and 11,000 deaths recorded in England and Wales each year. In men breast cancer is rare, with about 270 cases diagnosed, and 70 deaths in England and Wales each year. Of these new cases in women and men, around 10% are diagnosed in the advanced stages, when the tumour has spread significantly within the breast or to other organs of the body. In addition, there is a significant number of women who have been previously treated with curative intent who subsequently develop either a local recurrence or metastases. Over recent years there have been important developments in the investigation and management of these patients including new chemotherapy, and biological and hormonal agents. There is some evidence of practice variation across the country and of patchy availability of certain treatments and procedures. A clinical guideline will help to address these issues and offer guidance on best practice.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Cancer (UK).

Version: February 2009
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Spinal Injury: Assessment and Initial Management

The scope of this guideline is the assessment, imaging and early management of spinal injury and does not address rehabilitation. It is important to recognise that early management is intrinsically connected to rehabilitation and some later complications may be avoided with changes in early care. Early and ongoing collaborative multidisciplinary care across a trauma network is vital in ensuring that the patient with a spinal injury receives the best possible care.

NICE Guideline - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: February 2016
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How much sun is too much?

We all know that too much sun is bad for your skin. But how long are you allowed to stay in the sun? You cannot see or feel UV light, so it is difficult to know how strong it is and what effect it will have.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: August 26, 2015

Patient safety in ambulance services: a scoping review

This study aimed to identify and map available evidence relating to patient safety when using ambulance services. There was inconsistency of information on attitudes and approaches to patient safety, exacerbated by a lack of common terminology. Patient safety needs to become a more prominent consideration for ambulance services and development of new models of working must include adequate training and monitoring of clinical risks. Providers and commissioners need a full understanding of the safety implications of introducing new models of care. Areas requiring further work include the safety surrounding discharging patients, patient accidents, equipment and treatment, delays in transfer/admission to hospital, and treatment and diagnosis, with a clear need for increased reliability and training for improving handover to hospital.

Health Services and Delivery Research - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: May 2015
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Behavioral Counseling to Prevent Skin Cancer: Systematic Evidence Review to Update the 2003 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation [Internet]

We conducted this systematic evidence review of five key questions to assist the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) in updating its 2003 recommendation on behavioral counseling to prevent skin cancer (melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma).

Evidence Syntheses - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: February 2011
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Heavy Menstrual Bleeding

Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) has an adverse effect on the quality of life of many women. It is not a problem associated with significant mortality. Many women seek help from their general practitioners and it is a common reason for referral into secondary care.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: January 2007
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Melanoma: How can you avoid too much sun?

Sun protection is something we can influence, so protecting yourself from the sun is considered to be the main thing you can do to prevent skin cancer. Children are more sensitive to sunlight than adults and need special protection from direct sun and sunburn.Ideally, protection from sunlight means avoiding too much UV-A and UV-B radiation. The sun’s rays are at their most intense during the summer, between 10 in the morning and 4 in the afternoon. You can limit your level of exposure to the sun by doing the following things:Avoid the midday sun during the summerSeek out shade, especially around noonUse a parasol and wear the right clothing and a hatWear sunglasses that offer UV protectionDo not use tanning beds or UV lampsUse sunscreen that has UV-A and UV-B protection and a high SPF (but shade or protective clothing are more effective)You can find helpful tips for parents to help protect their children from the sun in our information “Children and sun.”

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: September 10, 2015

A rapid synthesis of the evidence on interventions supporting self-management for people with long-term conditions: PRISMS – Practical systematic Review of Self-Management Support for long-term conditions

Study found that supporting self-management is inseparable from the high-quality care for long-term conditions. Commissioners and health-care providers should promote a culture of actively supporting self-management as a normal, expected, monitored and rewarded aspect of care.

Health Services and Delivery Research - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: December 2014

Nocturnal Enuresis: The Management of Bedwetting in Children and Young People

This guideline aims to provide advice on the assessment and management of children and young people with bedwetting. The guidance is applicable to children and young people up to 19 years with the symptom of bedwetting. It has been common practice to define enuresis as abnormal from 5 years and only to consider children for treatment when they are 7 years. While the prevalence of symptoms decreases with age the guideline scope did not specify a younger age limit in order to consider whether there were useful interventions that might be of benefit to children previously excluded from advice and services.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: 2010

Prevention of Wrong Site Surgery, Retained Surgical Items, and Surgical Fires: A Systematic Review [Internet]

The VA National Center for Patient Safety has requested an evidence review to examine the prevalence and the root causes of wrong site surgery, retained surgical items, and surgical fires. The evidence review also evaluates current guidelines and the effectiveness of interventions for the prevention of these events. Studies examining VA-specific data were of special interest. The evidence synthesis will be used to develop a standardized, single, strong recommendation to VA facilities in the effort to eliminate these events.

Evidence-Based Synthesis Program - Department of Veterans Affairs (US).

Version: September 2013
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Pain in Patients with Polytrauma: A Systematic Review [Internet]

Polytrauma is defined in the VHA Polytrauma Rehabilitation Centers Directive dated June 8, 2005 as: “injury to the brain in addition to other body parts or systems resulting in physical, cognitive, psychological, or psychosocial impairments and functional disability.” The definition of polytrauma has since expanded to include concurrent injury to two or more body parts or systems that results in cognitive, physical, psychological or other psychosocial impairments. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) often occurs in polytrauma and in combination with other disabling conditions including amputation, auditory or visual impairments, spinal cord injury (SCI), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and other mental health conditions.

Evidence-based Synthesis Program - Department of Veterans Affairs (US).

Version: September 2008
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The Value of FDG Positron Emission Tomography/Computerised Tomography (PET/CT) in Pre-Operative Staging of Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Economic Evaluation

In the UK, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common malignancy (behind lung and breast cancer) with 37,514 cases registered in 2006: around two-thirds (23,384) in the colon and one-third (14,130) in the rectum. Treatment of cancers of the colon can vary considerably, but surgical resection is the mainstay of treatment for curative intent. Following surgical resection, there is a comprehensive assessment of the tumour, it's invasion characteristics and spread (tumour staging). A number of imaging modalities are used in the pre-operative staging of CRCs including; computerised tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound imaging and positron emission tomography (PET). This report examines the role of CT in combination with PET scanning (PET/CT ‘hybrid’ scan). The research objectives are: to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and therapeutic impact of fluorine-18-deoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT for the pre-operative staging of primary, recurrent and metastatic cancer using systematic review methods; undertake probabilistic decision-analytic modelling (using Monte Carlo simulation); and conduct a value of information analysis to help inform whether or not there is potential worth in undertaking further research.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: September 2011

Psoriasis: Assessment and Management of Psoriasis

Psoriasis is a common, chronic disease, which for many people, is associated with profound functional, psychological and social morbidity and important comorbidities. Effective treatments are available. Some treatments are expensive; all require appropriate monitoring and some may only be accessed in specialist care settings. Evidence indicates that a substantial proportion of people with psoriasis are currently dissatisfied with their treatment.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: October 2012
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Total hip replacement and surface replacement for the treatment of pain and disability resulting from end-stage arthritis of the hip (review of technology appraisal guidance 2 and 44): systematic review and economic evaluation

Study found that patients’ hip function and their general quality of life improved after having either total hip replacement (THR) or resurfacing arthroplasty (RS), with certain types of THR showing some benefit over others. More hip RSs had to be revised than THRs with costs for RS higher than those for THR.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: January 2015

Neutropenic Sepsis: Prevention and Management of Neutropenic Sepsis in Cancer Patients

Guidelines are recommendations for the care of individuals in specific clinical conditions or circumstances - and these can include prevention and self-care through to primary and secondary care and on to more specialised services. NICE clinical guidelines are based on the best available evidence of clinical and cost effectiveness, and are produced to help healthcare professionals and patients make informed choices about appropriate healthcare. While guidelines assist the practice of healthcare professionals, they do not replace their knowledge and skills.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (UK).

Version: September 2012

Myocardial Infarction with ST-Segment Elevation: The Acute Management of Myocardial Infarction with ST-Segment Elevation [Internet]

When myocardial blood flow is acutely impaired (ischaemia), and often not provoked by exertion, a person will commonly suffer more prolonged pain; this is referred to as acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The underlying common pathophysiology of ACS involves the erosion or sudden rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque within the wall of a coronary artery. Exposure of the circulating blood to the cholesterol-rich material within the plaque stimulates blood clotting (thrombosis), which obstructs blood flow within the affected coronary artery. This coronary obstruction may be of short duration, and may not result in myocardial cell damage (necrosis), in which case the clinical syndrome is termed unstable angina. Unstable angina may result in reversible changes on the electrocardiogram (ECG) but does not cause a rise in troponin, a protein released by infarcting myocardial cells. Ischaemia which causes myocardial necrosis (infarction) will result in elevated troponin. When the ischaemia-causing infarction is either short-lived or affects only a small territory of myocardium the ECG will often show either no abnormality or subtle changes. This syndrome is termed non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). The diagnosis and immediate management of STEMI and the management of unstable angina and NSTEMI is addressed in other NICE Clinical Guidelines (CG95 and CG94).

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: July 2013

Noninvasive Testing for Coronary Artery Disease [Internet]

This report evaluates the current state of evidence regarding effectiveness and harms of noninvasive technologies for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) or dysfunction that results in symptoms attributable to myocardial ischemia in stable symptomatic patients who have no known history of CAD.

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: March 2016
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The Management of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Men [Internet]

The guideline covers men (18 and over) with a clinical working diagnosis of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Options for conservative, pharmacological, surgical, and complementary or alternative treatments are considered in terms of clinical and cost effectiveness.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: 2010
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