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Interventions to reduce harm to women and their children from untreated low levels of thyroid hormone in pregnancy

The thyroid is a butterfly‐shaped gland at the front of the oesophagus/throat that produces thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormone helps the body to make energy, keeps body temperature regulated and assists other organs in their functions. Hypothyroidism (a deficiency of thyroid hormone) is a relatively common illness that can cause fatigue, constipation, muscle cramps and weakness, hair loss, dry skin, intolerance to cold, depression and weight gain. Medication is with levothyroxine. Selenium is a trace element that changes the expression of selenoproteins. These act as antioxidants and appear to decrease thyroid inflammation in autoimmune thyroiditis. Pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism have abnormal thyroid hormone levels but no symptoms. They are at a increased risk of miscarriage, pre‐eclampsia and preterm birth with impaired neuropsychological development in the child.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Type 1 Diabetes in Adults: Diagnosis and Management

Type 1 diabetes affects over 370,000 adults in the UK, representing approximately 10% of adults diagnosed with diabetes. Given the complexity of its treatment regimens, successful outcomes depend, perhaps more than with any other long-term condition, on full engagement of the adult with type 1 diabetes in life-long day-by-day self-management. In order to support this, the health service needs to provide informed, expert support, education and training as well as a range of other more conventional biomedical services and interventionsfor the prevention and management of long term complications and disability.

NICE Guideline - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: August 2015
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Screening for and Treatment of Thyroid Dysfunction: An Evidence Review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force [Internet]

Screening may lead to detection and treatment of asymptomatic subclinical thyroid dysfunction or undiagnosed overt thyroid disease, potentially resulting in improved clinical outcomes.

Evidence Syntheses - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: October 2014
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Screening and Treatment of Subclinical Hypothyroidism or Hyperthyroidism [Internet]

This report focused on four questions:

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: October 2011
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Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: April 13, 2017

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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