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It is difficult to know what the true incidence of metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) is in England and Wales because the cases are not systematically recorded. However, evidence from an audit carried out in Scotland between 1997 and 1999 and from a published study from Ontario, Canada, suggests that the incidence may be up to 80 cases per million population per year. This would mean around 4000 cases per year in England and Wales or more than 100 cases per cancer network per year.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Cancer (UK).

Version: November 2008

Bibliographic details: Munn Z, Jordan Z.  The effectiveness of nonpharmacologic interventions to reduce anxiety and increase patient satisfaction and comfort during nuclear medicine imaging. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences 2014; 45(1): 47-54 Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S193986541300115X

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

This summary of a Cochrane review presents what we know from research about the accuracy of imaging tests to detect true scaphoid fractures among suspected fractures.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

This article reviews the literature on the use of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) and thallium-201, technetium-99m sestamibi and technetium-99m tetrofosmin single-photon emission tomography (SPET) for the diagnosis and staging of primary and recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). A search of the MEDLINE and CancerLit databases covering articles entered between 1989 and February 2003 was performed. In the case of FDG PET, only full-ring PET studies that included comparison with conventional morphological imaging were considered. Due to the wide variation in methodology, a straightforward meta-analysis of FDG PET literature was impossible. Instead, indicative summary receiver-operating curves of FDG PET and morphological imaging techniques were generated and a paired comparison of the sensitivities and specificities of FDG PET and morphological imaging performed. Compared with conventional morphological imaging, FDG PET proved as sensitive and specific for the detection of primary SCCHN but more sensitive and specific for the detection of cervical lymph node involvement (CLNI) and recurrence of SCCHN. Additional studies addressing the role of FDG PET in screening for distant metastases and synchronous primary tumours are mandatory. Following negative conventional evaluations, FDG PET identifies occult primary tumours in 20-50% of patients presenting with CLNI. As regards the use of 201Tl, 99mTc-sestamibi and 99mTc-tetrofosmin, more studies are required to define whether these imaging agents could form part of the current diagnostic armamentarium in SCCHN patients. It is concluded that FDG PET either is superior to or offers added value when compared with conventional morphological imaging techniques for the purpose of diagnosis and staging of primary and recurrent SCCHN.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2003

Pulmonary embolism is a blood clot that blocks blood flow to a portion of the lungs. Pregnant women are at high risk of pulmonary embolism, and it is a leading cause of death during pregnancy. Women at risk are treated with blood thinning medication. It is important that no cases are missed, and that treatment is prevented in women without the disease. Pulmonary embolism can be diagnosed through different scanning techniques. Little is known about the performance of these tests during pregnancy, which might be different from their performance outside pregnancy. We performed this review to establish the accuracy of the following imaging tests for diagnosing pulmonary embolism during pregnancy: computed tomography pulmonary angiography, lung scintigraphy and magnetic resonance angiography.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: January 26, 2017

Some children are born with an anatomic abnormality that allows backwards flow of urine from the bladder to the kidney. This is called vesicoureteral reflux or VUR. Children with VUR have more urinary tract infections and develop more renal scars than children without VUR. This is especially the case if VUR is severe. As such, clinicians are interested in finding out which children have VUR. Unfortunately, testing for VUR (using a voiding cystourethrogram or a VCUG or MCUG) involves bladder catheterisation and exposure to radiation. Accordingly, clinicians are interested in finding alternative tests that could replace the VCUG. The authors compared the accuracy of two other imaging tests (ultrasound and DMSA renal scan) to see whether these could replace the VCUG test. Neither test was found to be sufficiently accurate to replace the VCUG test. Although the DMSA scan seems to be good at ruling out high‐grade VUR, it falsely labels many children as being at risk for high‐grade VUR. Accordingly, DMSA does not appear to be useful as a screening test.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

The thyroid is a vitally important hormonal gland, which mainly works for the body’s metabolism. It is located in the front part of the neck below the voice box and is butterfly-shaped. The functions of the thyroid gland include the production of the thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and tetraiodothyronine, also called thyroxine (T4).

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: December 30, 2016

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Scintigraphy using Tc-99m or In-111 labeled proteins is an important diagnostic modality for diagnosis of protein losing enteropathy (PLE). We systematically reviewed the available literature regarding the accuracy of scintigraphy using Tc-99m or In-111 labeled proteins for diagnosis of PLE.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

Thyroid cancer is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system consisting of several subtypes like papillary carcinoma (accounting for 80% of cases) and follicular carcinoma (accounting for 11% of cases). These are collectively referred to as 'differentiated thyroid cancer'. Treatment with radioactive iodine after surgery (ablation of the thyroid gland or 'thyroidectomy') is important for the detection of metastatic disease and for the destruction of the remaining thyroid tissue with microscopic cancer. After radioactive iodine treatment, adverse effects may happen in the salivary glands and cause salivary gland swelling and pain, usually involving the parotid. The symptoms may develop immediately after a therapeutic dose of radioactive iodine or months later and progress in intensity with time. Secondary complications reported include dry mouth ('xerostomia') and taste alterations.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Although multiple imaging modalities to evaluate treatment response in patients with metastatic breast cancer are used clinically, their comparative effectiveness has not been determined.

Technical Briefs - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: October 2014

Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is one of the more common causes of dementia in old age. At present, it is diagnosed on the basis of the presence of characteristic symptoms, of which the most important are visual hallucinations, fluctuations in cognition, and Parkinsonism (movement symptoms like those seen in Parkinson's disease). However, many people who have DLB do not have all of these symptoms, and it can be hard to distinguish from other causes of dementia, especially Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is important to diagnose it accurately because people with DLB can have particularly severe side effects if given antipsychotic medication and, in the long term, so that treatments can be improved. Diagnosis of DLB using clinical symptoms alone has proven in some studies not to be very sensitive, that is cases of DLB are often missed.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: January 30, 2015

Bibliographic details: Medical Advisory Secretariat.  Scintimammography as an adjunctive breast imaging technology: intergrated health technology literature review. Toronto, ON, Canada: Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. 2007

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2007

Study found that late gadolinium-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, stress echocardiography, single photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography were all cost-effective strategies to test patients prior to revscularisation of patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy. However, the cost-effectiveness analyses suggested that late gadolinium-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and revascularising everyone without prior screening were the optimal strategies.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: September 2014

OBJECTIVE: Parathyroid scintigraphy using (99m)Tc-MIBI is not currently considered a valuable diagnostic tool for the localization of involved glands in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). However, published data about its diagnostic accuracy are discordant and a meta-analysis about this topic is still lacking. The aim of our study is to meta-analyze the published data about the diagnostic performance of (99m)Tc-MIBI parathyroid scintigraphy in patients with SHPT.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

PURPOSE: This meta-analysis summarized the accuracy of stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) and stress echocardiography for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with arterial hypertension.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2011

CONTEXT: (123)I-mIBG scintigraphy has been in clinical use for more than 20 yr for diagnostic assessment of patients with neural crest and neuroendocrine tumors. Prospective validation of the performance characteristics of this method has recently been published.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2010

AIM: Functional nuclear medicine imaging techniques have become particularly important in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis. The aim of our study was to perform a meta-analysis to obtain a reliable estimate of the diagnostic performance of fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), three-phase bone scintigraphy, leukocyte scintigraphy, and monoclonal antigranulocyte antibody (MOAB) scintigraphy in the assessment of suspected osteomyelitis and to perform pairwise comparisons of the diagnostic accuracy between these different imaging modalities.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2011

OBJECTIVE: Differential diagnosis between Parkinson's disease (PD) and other Parkinsonism using clinical criteria or imaging methods is often difficult. The purpose of this study is to systematically review and meta-analyze published data about the diagnostic performance of myocardial innervation imaging using (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy in differential diagnosis between PD and other Parkinsonism.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

Accurate diagnosis of osteomyelitis underlying diabetic foot ulcers is essential to optimize outcomes. We undertook a meta-analysis of the accuracy of diagnostic tests for osteomyelitis in diabetic patients with foot ulcers. Pooled sensitivity and specificity, the summary measure of accuracy (Q*), and diagnostic odds ratio were calculated. Exposed bone or probe-to-bone test had a sensitivity of 0.60 and a specificity of 0.91. Plain radiography had a sensitivity of 0.54 and a specificity of 0.68. MRI had a sensitivity of 0.90 and a specificity of 0.79. Bone scan was found to have a sensitivity of 0.81 and a specificity of 0.28. Leukocyte scan was found to have a sensitivity of 0.74 and a specificity of 0.68. The diagnostic odds ratios for clinical examination, radiography, MRI, bone scan, and leukocyte scan were 49.45, 2.84, 24.36, 2.10, and 10.07, respectively. The presence of exposed bone or a positive probe-to-bone test result is moderately predictive of osteomyelitis. MRI is the most accurate imaging test for diagnosis of osteomyelitis.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2008

This review aims to evaluate the quality of studies assessing the value of 99mTc-MIBI myocardial perfusion imaging in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. OVID (1956 to 2006), CBMdisc (1978 to 2006), CNKI (2005 to 2006) and VIP (2005 to 2006) for relevant studies in English and Chinese were searched and identified. Quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies (QUADAS) items were used. Studies were classified and Meta-disc software was used to analyze sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio for the pooled analysis and heterogeneity test, then Asymmetric SROC curves were drawn for those without heterogeneity. In 29 articles included, the results of the pooled analysis showed that, as for rest, exercise and drug myocardial perfusion imaging, the pooled LR + were 2.209, 4.334 and 5.508, the pooled LR- were 0.224, 0.141 and 0.195, and for dipyridamole myocardial perfusion imaging, the pooled LR+ and LR- were 5.031 and 0.193, respectively. Besides, for stress myocardial perfusion imaging among the patients without myocardial infarction history, the pooled LR+ and LR- were 6.176 and 0.199, respectively. The biases from the 29 studies were mainly due to diagnostic test results review bias; variations were probable and were correlated with the spectrum of disease and inclusion criteria; the quality of report was moderate. The conclusion is that 99mTc-MIBI stress MPI, especially dipyridamole MPI, is valuable for diagnosing coronary artery disease.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2008

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