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The objective of this study was to estimate the treatment effect of Pneumatic Lithotripsy (PL) versus holmium: YAG laser lithotripsy (LL) in the treatment of distal ureteric calculi. A bibliographic search covering the period from 1990 to April 2012 was conducted using search engines such as MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane library. Data were extracted and analyzed with RevMan5.1 software. A total of 47 studies were scant, and 4 independent studies were finally recruited. Holmium: YAG LL conveyed significant benefits compared with PL in terms of early stone-free rate [odds ratio (OR)=4.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.14, 17.16), p=0.03], delayed stone-free rate [OR=4.42, 95%CI (1.58, 12.37), p=0.005], mean operative time [WMD=-16.86, 95%CI (-21.33, -12.39), p<0.00001], retaining double-J catheter rate [OR=0.44, 95%CI (0.25, 0.78), p=0.004], and stone migration incidence [OR=0.26, 95%CI (0.11, 0.62), p=0.003], but not yet in the postoperative hematuria rate and the ureteral perforation rate according to this meta-analysis. Precise estimates on larger sample size and trials of high quality may provide more uncovered outcomes in the future.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The management of urolithiasis in patients on anticoagulants presents a challenge to the endourologist. Due to multiple comorbidities, it may be impossible to safely discontinue the anticoagulant treatment. Other modalities such as shock wave lithotripsy and PCNL are contraindicated in these patients, so ureteroscopic treatment may be the only option. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to look at the safety and efficacy of ureteroscopic management in these patients.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Urinary stones >2 cm are traditionally managed with percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). Recently, flexible ureteroscopy and laser lithotripsy) (FURSL) has been used to manage them with comparable results. In a comparative study of renal stones between 2 and 3 cm, FURSL was reported to need less second-stage procedures and be just as effective as PCNL. Our purpose was to review the literature for renal stones >2 cm managed by ureteroscopy and holmium lasertripsy.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

OBJECTIVE: To look at the role and safety of ureteroscopy for stone management in obese patients.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

BACKGROUND: Several treatments are available to treat epicondylitis. Among these are instrumental electrophysical modalities, ranging from ultrasound, extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT), transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) to laser therapy, commonly used to treat epicondylitis.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

OBJECTIVE: To understand the role, safety and efficacy of flexible ureterorenoscopy and lasertripsy (FURSL) for paediatric renal stones.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Small kidney stones often pass on their own and don't need treatment as long as they don't cause any severe pain or complications. Larger kidney stones usually need to be removed. Depending on how large the kidney stones are and where they're located, they can be destroyed, removed using endoscopy or operated on.Kidney stones with a diameter of less than 5 millimeters pass on their own 70% of the time, and stones that are between 5 and 10 millimeters are flushed out in about 50% of cases. The amount of time this takes varies greatly. Small kidney stones are usually passed with the urine after one or two weeks.If a stone is expected to be flushed out with your urine without any treatment, it's usual to simply wait. Anti-inflammatory painkillers like diclofenac can provide relief if the kidney stone causes pain as it travels through the ureter.Larger stones will usually have to be broken up or surgically removed. This needs to be done in the following instances:The kidney stone isn't passed within four weeks.There are complications.It causes severe renal colic.The stone is larger than 10 mm in diameter.Uric acid stones can sometimes be dissolved using medication.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: May 18, 2017

Gallstone disease is the term used in this guideline to refer to the presence of stones in the gallbladder or common bile duct and the symptoms and complications they cause. The following aspects of gallstone disease are included in this guideline: Asymptomatic gallbladder stones; symptomatic gallbladder stones, including biliary colic, acute cholecystitis, Mirrizi syndrome, and Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis; common bile duct stones, including biliary colic, cholangitis, obstructive jaundice and gallstone pancreatitis; other complications of gallstones (such as gastric outlet obstruction, or gallstone ileus) and other conditions related to the gallbladder (such as gallbladder cancer, or biliary dyskinesia) are not included in this guideline.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - Internal Clinical Guidelines Team (UK).

Version: October 2014

Urinary track calculi or urinary stones, formed from crystalized chemicals in the urine such as calcium oxalate, uric acid and cystine, occur in one of ten Canadians in their lifetime. The obstruction of the urinary tract by calculi at the narrowest anatomical areas leads to impaired drainage and severe pain (renal colic). The treatment of renal colic includes conservative treatment including rehydration, analgesia, and drugs to enhance stones expulsion, and surgical treatments such as uteroscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy and open/laparoscopic lithotomy. Pain therapy includes drugs such as paracetamol, narcotics, corticosteroids, and acupuncture. Drugs that enhance expulsion include cyclooxygenase inhibitors, corticosteroids, α-blocker therapy, or calcium-channel blocker therapy. The stone composition, size and location are key determinants for predicting spontaneous stone passage and therefore dictate the type of therapy used. Stones less than 5mm in diameter and located in the distal ureter are more likely to pass spontaneously with facilitation from drugs that enhance expulsion than larger stones and stones that are located in the proximal ureter which need surgical therapy. Small stones can also be treated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. The economic burden of urinary stone treatment is estimated at US$5 billion including direct and indirect costs in 2005.

Rapid Response Report: Summary with Critical Appraisal - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: November 17, 2014

Infective endocarditis (IE) is a rare condition with significant morbidity and mortality. It may arise following bacteraemia in a patient with a predisposing cardiac lesion. In an attempt to prevent this disease, over the past 50 years, at-risk patients have been given antibiotic prophylaxis before dental and certain non-dental interventional procedures.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (UK).

Version: March 2008

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The management of large intrarenal stones (>2 cm) is typically percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Although the stone-free rate (SFR) of such a procedure is high (up to 95%), the complications related mainly to the renal access are sometimes a concern. Because of the evolution in technology, it is nowadays possible to treat intrarenal stones with retrograde intrarenal surgery. It remains unclear weather or not retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) may be effective also for the treatment of larger stones (>2 cm). The purpose of this review is to provide recent data on the ureteroscopic management of kidney stones larger than 2.5 cm.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of ureteroscopy as a primary treatment for pregnant women with symptomatic ureteric stones who have failed conservative management.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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