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The guideline covers diagnosis of early pregnancy loss, including the use of ultrasound scanning and biochemical testing. Investigations incur costs and the use of serial measurements may delay decision making. The guideline includes guidance on when senior and/or specialist advice should be sought in order to avoid errors and unnecessary delay.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: December 2012

Clinical guidelines have been defined as ‘systematically developed statements which assist clinicians and patients in making decisions about appropriate treatment for specific conditions’. This clinical guideline concerns the management of diabetes and its complications from preconception to the postnatal period. It has been developed with the aim of providing guidance on:

NICE Guideline - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: February 2015

This guideline intends to show the place of both new and established treatments in the wider care pathway for Crohn's disease. This will be useful for clinicians and people with Crohn's disease because new drugs have been licensed for Crohn's disease in the last decade. The guideline also deals with those medications which are unlicensed for treatment of the condition, but which have been used in this way (off-label) for many years and their role is recognised in other NICE documents as well as the British National Formulary. They include azathioprine, mercaptopurine and methotrexate. The guideline aims to help improve the care offered to people with Crohn's disease and provide information about the clinical and cost effectiveness of potential care pathways. Management of Crohn's disease in specific populations (for example, in pregnancy) may require special consideration.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: October 10, 2012

INTRODUCTION: the active engagement of fathers in maternity care is associated with long-term health and social benefits for the mother, baby and family. The maternity care expectations and experiences of expectant and new fathers have received little attention to date.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

This review assessed single- and multidose intramuscular methotrexate regimens for the medical treatment of ectopic pregnancy. The authors concluded that methotrexate regimens have high success rates and that multidose regimens are more effective than single-dose regimens. The evidence supporting the author's conclusions is not strong.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2003

In the past 30–50 years, the natural history of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children has changed as a result of the introduction of antibiotics and improvements in health care. This change has contributed to uncertainty about the most appropriate and effective way to diagnose and treat UTI in children and whether or not investigations and follow-up are justified.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: August 2007

These guidelines provide guidance on the diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection and the care of people living with HIV. They are structured along the continuum of HIV testing, prevention, treatment and care.

World Health Organization.

Version: 2016

This guideline has been developed to advise on the treatment and management of bipolar disorder. The guideline recommendations have been developed by a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, patients and guideline methodologists after careful consideration of the best available evidence. It is intended that the guidelines will be useful to clinicians and service commissioners in providing and planning high quality care for those with bipolar disorder while also emphasising the importance of the experience of care for patients and carers.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).

Version: 2006

Type 1 diabetes affects over 370,000 adults in the UK, representing approximately 10% of adults diagnosed with diabetes. Given the complexity of its treatment regimens, successful outcomes depend, perhaps more than with any other long-term condition, on full engagement of the adult with type 1 diabetes in life-long day-by-day self-management. In order to support this, the health service needs to provide informed, expert support, education and training as well as a range of other more conventional biomedical services and interventionsfor the prevention and management of long term complications and disability.

NICE Guideline - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: August 2015

These are the first World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for the prevention, care and treatment of persons living with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection, and complement similar recently published guidance by WHO on the prevention, care and treatment of infection due to the hepatitis C virus (HCV).

World Health Organization.

Version: March 2015

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of cervical cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: January 30, 2018

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of adult nasopharyngeal cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: February 7, 2018

The study found evidence to suggest that integrated continuous glucose monitoring insulin pump therapy systems are more clinically effective in patients with type 1 diabetes than stand-alone treatments. However, based on the evidence available, these integrated systems are unlikely to be cost-effective in comparison with stand-alone insulin delivery and monitoring. Further research on the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these integrated systems in different populations is warranted.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: February 2016

The renin-angiotensin system is a complex biologic system between the heart, brain, blood vessels, and kidneys that leads to the production of biologically active agents, including angiotensin I and II and aldosterone, which act together to impact a variety of bodily functions including blood vessel tone, sodium balance, and glomerular filtration pressure. The multiple and varied effects of these agents allows the renin-angiotensin system to play a wide role in the pathology of hypertension, cardiovascular health, and renal function. Our ability to begin to intervene upon the complex cycle of hormone and other biochemical agent production within the renin-angiotensin system began with the advent of the first orally active ACE-I (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor), captopril, in 1981. AIIRAs (angiotensin II receptor blockers) were developed as an alternative to ACE-I, and block the interaction between angiotensin II and the angiotensin receptor. Losartan, the first commercially available AIIRA, was approved for clinical use in 1995. The goal of this report is to compare the effectiveness and harms between aliskiren and placebo and between AIIRAs and ACEIs in the treatment of diagnosed coronary heart disease, hypertension, left ventricular dysfunction, heart failure, nondiabetic chronic kidney disease, or diabetic nephropathy.

Drug Class Reviews - Oregon Health & Science University.

Version: January 2010

The study found that few interventions for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis have any statistically significant effect, and identified a lack of studies on palliative care approaches. Few direct comparisons of treatments were identified; an indirect comparison was performed through network meta-analysis, but the results should be interpreted with caution.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: March 2015

Compare the benefits and harms of corticosteroids, oral and biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) for adults with rheumatoid arthritis.

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: April 2012

Women are playing an ever increasing role in the US military, representing about 15% of active military personnel, 17% of reserve and National Guard forces, and 20% of new military recruits. Concurrently, women are one of the fastest growing groups of new users in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Healthcare System, with particularly high rates of utilization among veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Of the more than 100,000 OEF/OIF women veterans, over 44% have enrolled in the VA system for health care. Thus, women veterans represent an integral part of the veteran community.

Evidence-based Synthesis Program - Department of Veterans Affairs (US).

Version: October 2010

Many adult hospital inpatients need intravenous (IV) fluid therapy to prevent or correct problems with their fluid and/or electrolyte status. This may be because they cannot meet their normal needs through oral or enteral routes (for example, they have swallowing problems or gastrointestinal dysfunction) or because they have unusual fluid and/or electrolyte deficits or demands caused by illness or injury (for example, high gastrointestinal or renal losses). Deciding on the optimal amount and composition of IV fluids to be administered and the best rate at which to give them can be a difficult task, and decisions must be based on careful assessment of the patient’s individual needs.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: December 2013

Late effects of cancer treatment can cause serious, disabling, and life-threatening chronic health conditions that adversely affect the health of aging childhood cancer survivors. Learn about subsequent neoplasms and the cardiovascular, cognitive, psychosocial, digestive, endocrine, immune, musculoskeletal, reproductive, and urinary late effects of pediatric cancer treatment in this expert-reviewed summary.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: January 2, 2018

This guidance is a partial update of National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) clinical guideline 40 (published October 2006) and will replace it.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: September 2013

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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