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The guideline covers care provided by healthcare professionals who have direct contact with and make decisions about the care of people with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (or encephalopathy) (CFS/ME). It covers care provided in primary and secondary care, and in specialist centres/teams.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Primary Care (UK).

Version: August 2007

Women Veterans are among the fastest growing groups of new VA health care users of the VA healthcare system, and currently reflect approximately eight percent of all U.S. Veterans. With Operation Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF), women comprise a larger percentage of the military (11.3 percent) than of prior military operations. As of fiscal year 2010, 51.3 percent of female OEF/OIF Veterans had enrolled in VA health care, in sharp contrast to women from previous eras (an estimated 11 percent). Of this group, 88 percent have used VA health care more than once.

Evidence-based Synthesis Program - Department of Veterans Affairs (US).

Version: May 2011

Women are playing an ever increasing role in the US military, representing about 15% of active military personnel, 17% of reserve and National Guard forces, and 20% of new military recruits. Concurrently, women are one of the fastest growing groups of new users in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Healthcare System, with particularly high rates of utilization among veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Of the more than 100,000 OEF/OIF women veterans, over 44% have enrolled in the VA system for health care. Thus, women veterans represent an integral part of the veteran community.

Evidence-based Synthesis Program - Department of Veterans Affairs (US).

Version: October 2010

Numerous studies have demonstrated racial and ethnic disparities in health care in the United States.These disparities have been demonstrated in the Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system, where financial barriers to receiving care are minimized. The VA is committed to delivering high-quality care in an equitable manner, and as such, to eliminating racial and ethnic disparities in health care. To inform this effort, we systematically reviewed the existing evidence on disparities within the VA, to address the following objectives: 1) Determine in which clinical areas racial and ethnic disparities are prevalent within the VA; 2) Describe what is known about the sources of those disparities; and 3) Qualitatively synthesize that knowledge to determine the most promising avenues for future research aimed at improving equity in VA health care.

Evidence-based Synthesis Program - Department of Veterans Affairs (US).

Version: June 2007

Polytrauma is defined in the VHA Polytrauma Rehabilitation Centers Directive dated June 8, 2005 as: “injury to the brain in addition to other body parts or systems resulting in physical, cognitive, psychological, or psychosocial impairments and functional disability.” The definition of polytrauma has since expanded to include concurrent injury to two or more body parts or systems that results in cognitive, physical, psychological or other psychosocial impairments. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) often occurs in polytrauma and in combination with other disabling conditions including amputation, auditory or visual impairments, spinal cord injury (SCI), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and other mental health conditions.

Evidence-based Synthesis Program - Department of Veterans Affairs (US).

Version: September 2008

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the emotional disorder most frequently associated with combat and other potentially traumatic experiences that may occur during military service. It is often chronic and may be associated with significant comorbidities and functional impairments. Current first-line PTSD therapies include trauma-focused cognitive behavioral psychotherapies, stress inoculation training, and pharmacotherapies. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) interventions include a range of therapies that are not considered standard to the practice of medicine in the U.S. CAM therapies are widely used by mental health consumers, including Veterans, and numerous stakeholders have expressed strong interest in fostering the evidence base for these approaches in PTSD. Thus, this evidence synthesis was requested by VA Research and Development to inform decisions on the need for research in this area.

Evidence-based Synthesis Program - Department of Veterans Affairs (US).

Version: August 2011

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common progressive disease of the central nervous system in young adults and the cause of serious physical disability in adults of working age. Epidemiologic data suggest that rates of MS vary with demographic and environmental factors. The disease presentation is very heterogeneous with diverse clinical manifestations. Progression of MS may vary with modifiable risk factors.

Evidence-based Synthesis Program - Department of Veterans Affairs (US).

Version: December 2015

This guideline has been developed to advise on the treatment and management of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The guideline recommendations have been developed by a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, PTSD sufferers and guideline methodologists after careful consideration of the best available evidence. (The term ‘PTSD sufferer’ was chosen for use in the guideline on the basis of a survey conducted by sufferer members of the Guideline Development Group. People with the disorder were presented with a range of options such as ‘people with PTSD’, ‘patients with PTSD’ and ‘PTSD sufferer’ and asked to indicate which term they preferred; ‘PTSD sufferer’ was the term favoured by the majority.) It is intended that the guideline will be useful to clinicians and service commissioners in providing and planning high-quality care for those with PTSD while also emphasising the importance of the experience of care for patients and their families.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).

Version: 2005

Combat blast injuries are typically categorized by the mechanism of injury. Primary blast injuries result from the over-pressurization wave and typically affect gas-filled body structures (eg, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, middle ear) resulting in injuries such as blast lung, tympanic membrane rupture, abdominal hemorrhage, and concussion. Secondary blast injuries result from flying debris propelled by the blast wind and may affect any body part. Blunt force or penetrating injuries are possible. Tertiary blast injuries occur when the body is accelerated by the blast wind or pressure gradients. Any body part may be affected and typical injuries include fracture and traumatic amputation, closed and open brain injuries, and crush injuries. Quaternary blast injuries are due to other products of the explosion (eg, heat, light) and exposure to toxins and gases. Any body part may be affected and injuries include burns, blindness, and respiratory problems from inhaled toxic gases. Quinary blast injuries include illnesses, injuries, and diseases resulting from post-explosion environmental contaminants (eg, bacteria, radiation). Factors such as type of explosive, distance from the explosion, and body orientation relative to the explosion influence the impact of the explosion on the body.

Evidence-based Synthesis Program - Department of Veterans Affairs (US).

Version: February 2016

Today's Veteran population is racially and ethnically diverse, and includes more women and individuals from vulnerable populations, such as those identifying as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT), than at any other time in history. While the equal access nature of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) may succeed in mitigating some of the disparities related to socioeconomic status (SES), it does not directly address the potential for disparities related sociodemographic factors (eg, race/ethnicity, gender, LGBT identity, age), geographic location, and mental health status. An understanding of whether disparities in utilization, health, or healthcare exists for Veterans belonging to vulnerable populations is vital. Both the Veterans Administration (VA) and the VHA have emphasized the mitigation and elimination of health disparities in their strategic plans, and have outlined specific goals in the VHA Health Equity Plan and the Blueprint for Excellence.Over the last decade, the VA Evidence-based Synthesis Program (ESP) and other organizations have published systematic reviews examining the quality of the health and healthcare experienced by a variety of vulnerable Veteran populations.

Evidence-based Synthesis Program - Department of Veterans Affairs (US).

Version: May 2017

The Department of Veterans Affairs, Health Services Research & Development Service (HSR&D) Evidence-based Synthesis Program (ESP) provides timely and accurate evidence briefs on targeted healthcare topics of particular importance to VA managers and policymakers, as they work to improve the health and healthcare of Veterans. The ESP disseminates these briefs throughout VA.

Department of Veterans Affairs (US).

Version: 2011

The study found that there is no one preferred demand management intervention that has the capacity to outperform all of the others. In every instance, demand management success depends on the synchronisation of a complex range of strategic, organisational, procedural and motivational changes.

Health Services and Delivery Research - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: January 2016

Healthcare decision makers in search of reliable information that compares health interventions increasingly turn to systematic reviews for the best summary of the evidence. Systematic reviews identify, select, assess, and synthesize the findings of similar but separate studies, and can help clarify what is known and not known about the potential benefits and harms of drugs, devices, and other healthcare services. Systematic reviews can be helpful for clinicians who want to integrate research findings into their daily practices, for patients to make well-informed choices about their own care, for professional medical societies and other organizations that develop clinical practice guidelines.

National Academies Press (US).

Version: 2011

Many people naturally assume that the claims made for foods and nutritional supplements have the same degree of scientific grounding as those for medication, but that is not always the case. The IOM recommends that the FDA adopt a consistent scientific framework for biomarker evaluation in order to achieve a rigorous and transparent process.

National Academies Press (US).

Version: 2010

Community hospitals can provide a wide range of potentially integrative services, suggesting that a more strategic role for community hospitals in England may be timely

Health Services and Delivery Research - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: June 2017

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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