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This generally well-conducted review concluded that higher efficacy in prevention of symptomatic venous thromboembolism in new anticoagulants following total knee or hip replacement was associated with a higher risk of bleeding. This conclusion accurately reflects the evidence and is likely to be reliable.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

The study found that the Childhood obesity Outcomes Review (CoOR) outcome measures framework provides clear guidance of recommended primary and secondary outcome measures, which will enhance comparability between treatment evaluations and ensure that appropriate measures are being used.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: August 2014

The study found that supervised person-centred care, communication skills and dementia-care mapping, as well as sensory therapy activities and structured music therapies, reduce agitation in care-home dementia residents. Health and social care costs were between £7000 and £15,000 depending on the severity of agitation. Further work is required to investigate interventions for agitation for use with people with dementia living in their own homes.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: June 2014

To examine behavioral and pharmacological weight management interventions for overweight (defined as BMI ≥ 85th to 94th percentile of age- and sex-specific norms) and/or obese (BMI ≥ 95th percentile) children and adolescents which are feasible to conduct in primary care settings or that may be available for referral from primary care in order to update an identified gap in the previous report on childhood obesity for the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF).

Evidence Syntheses - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: January 2010

Examples of physical therapies used in the management of chronic pain include exercise and active physical therapy, yoga, manual therapies (such as spinal manipulation therapy and mobilization), acupuncture and massage. Physical and exercise therapies are varied and may include exercises to improve range of motion and muscle conditioning to increase the degree of stability and function and improve pain control. Exercises can be passive, during which external force is applied and there is no voluntary muscle contraction or can be active, assisted with partial contraction and external force applied. Acupuncture is an intervention that involves the insertion of needles at specific acupuncture points. In the management of chronic pain it has been hypothesized that acupuncture induces changes in the perception and memory of pain and may induce changes in the sympathetic nervous system. Massage therapy has been defined as “as soft tissue and joint manipulation using the hands or a handheld device” for therapeutic purposes and is another example of a physical therapy used to help control pain. Massage therapy is thought to have a broad range of benefits related to relaxation and circulation.

Rapid Response Report: Summary with Critical Appraisal - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: November 10, 2016

In summary, a large number of women in the UK experience menopausal symptoms which, in many cases, can significantly affect their quality of life. It is probable that a minority of these women seek medical treatment and for those who do there is considerable variation in the help available, with many being told that the symptoms will get better with time. Since symptoms may often continue for 7 years or more, this advice is inappropriate and help should be offered where possible. Women need to know about the available options and their risks and benefits, and be empowered to become part of the decision-making process.

NICE Guideline - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: November 12, 2015

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and its management often presents patients and their healthcare professionals with difficult decisions about the most appropriate treatment. For all those affected by breast cancer (including family and carers) it is important to recognise the impact of this diagnosis, the complexity of treatment options and the wide ranging needs and support required throughout this period of care and beyond. We hope that this document will provide helpful and appropriate guidance to both healthcare professionals and patients on the diagnosis and subsequent management of early and locally advanced breast cancer.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Cancer (UK).

Version: February 2009

This guideline covers the assessment and management of low back pain and sciatica in adults over the age of 16 years.

NICE Guideline - National Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: November 2016

This guideline makes recommendations on the prevention, diagnosis and management of latent and active tuberculosis (TB), including both drug susceptible and drug resistant forms of the disease. It covers the organisation of relevant TB services. It relates to activities undertaken in any setting in which NHS or public health services for TB are received, provided or commissioned in the public, private and voluntary sectors.

NICE Guideline - Internal Clinical Guidelines Team (UK).

Version: January 2016

The study found that biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (with methotrexate where permitted) are superior to placebo in children with polyarticular course JIA who have had an insufficient response to previous treatment.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: April 2016

NICE issued guidance on the prevention, identification, assessment and management of overweight and obesity in adults and children in 2006 (CG43). This was a joint clinical and public health guideline developed by the National Collaborating Centre for Primary Care (now merged as part of the National Clinical Guidelines Centre) and NICE’s Centre for Public Health Excellence. Despite the guidance, there remain significant variations in existing service provision for people with obesity and, in many places, the multicomponent programmes that are required for both prevention and treatment are limited. The 2013 Royal College of Physicians report ‘Action on obesity: comprehensive care for all’ reported that access to surgery for obesity in some areas of the UK did not reflect the guideline recommendations.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: November 2014

The aim of this guideline development group was to review the structure, processes and interventions currently used in rehabilitation care, and to evaluate whether they improve outcomes for people with stroke. Such studies are complex and research methodologies need to be robust. Evaluation of clinical effectiveness needs studies that have robust theoretical underpinnings, capture changes that are relevant to the treatment evaluated and reflect what is important to patients, and be large enough to allow reliable data interpretation. This guideline reviews some of the available interventions that can be used in stroke rehabilitation, and highlights where there are gaps in the evidence. It is not intended to be comprehensive.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: May 23, 2013

In the past 30–50 years, the natural history of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children has changed as a result of the introduction of antibiotics and improvements in health care. This change has contributed to uncertainty about the most appropriate and effective way to diagnose and treat UTI in children and whether or not investigations and follow-up are justified.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: August 2007

The study found that in the treatment of localised prostate cancer, the evidence regarding the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of ablative therapies compared with radical prostatectomy, external beam radiotherapy and active surveillance is insufficient to influence current clinical practice.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: July 2015

The original antenatal care guideline was published by NICE in 2003. Since then a number of important pieces of evidence have become available, particularly concerning gestational diabetes, haemoglobinopathy and ultrasound, so that the update was initiated. This update has also provided an opportunity to look at a number of aspects of antenatal care: the development of a method to assess women for whom additional care is necessary (the ‘antenatal assessment tool’), information giving to women, lifestyle (vitamin D supplementation, alcohol consumption), screening for the baby (use of ultrasound for gestational age assessment and screening for fetal abnormalities, methods for determining normal fetal growth, placenta praevia), and screening for the mother (haemoglobinopathy screening, gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia and preterm labour, chlamydia).

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: March 2008

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