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Fungal infections can cause ill health, and in some cases, death. Conventional amphotericin B has been used for many years to treat fungal infection. Although effective, this drug can cause kidney damage in about eight of every ten patients treated. People with kidney damage have longer stays in hospital, increased healthcare costs, and higher numbers of deaths.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: November 23, 2015

We carried out a review on the effects of non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for treating pain or respiratory symptoms such as cough associated with the common cold.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: September 21, 2015

Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for most patients with end‐stage kidney disease. Strategies to increase donor organ availability and to prolong the transplanted kidney's survival have become priorities in kidney transplantation. About 10% to 35% of all kidney transplant recipients will experience one episode of acute rejection in the first year. Options for treating these episodes include pulsed steroid therapy, the use of an antibody preparation, the alteration of background immunosuppression, or combinations of these options.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: July 20, 2017

Gallstones are quite common in people over the age of 40. But most people don't notice them because the stones don't cause any symptoms. Treatment is usually only a good idea if there are noticeable symptoms. This is because that means there is a greater risk of complications. The possible complications of gallstones include inflammation of the gallbladder, bile duct or pancreas and obstruction of the bowel. Very large gallstones may increase the risk of gallbladder cancer and bile duct cancer. Each year about 1 out of 100 people who have typical gallbladder symptoms such as colic develop complications.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: February 8, 2017

Sipuleucel-T (trade name: Provenge) has been approved in Germany since September 2013 for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer in men who have no or only few symptoms and do not need chemotherapy yet.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: January 2, 2015

The review concluded that blood cultures should not be ordered for adults with isolated fever or leukocytosis without considering the pre-test probability. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome and Shapiro decision rule may have been helpful to identify patients not needing blood cultures. In light of the review's methodological and reporting limitations, the reliability of the authors' conclusions is uncertain.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of pharmacological, psychological and alternative therapies for treatment-resistant anxiety in older people by undertaking a systematic review of randomised controlled trials and prospective comparative observational studies. However, no study was identified that evaluated interventions in treatment-resistant older adults with anxiety disorders and, therefore, there is uncertainty as to which treatments are clinically effective in these patients.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: August 2014

In the past 30–50 years, the natural history of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children has changed as a result of the introduction of antibiotics and improvements in health care. This change has contributed to uncertainty about the most appropriate and effective way to diagnose and treat UTI in children and whether or not investigations and follow-up are justified.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: August 2007

Nausea and vomiting are major concerns for patients undergoing chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgery with general anesthesia. Risk factors associated with chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting include emetogenicity of the chemotherapy regimen, dose, speed of intravenous infusion, female gender, age under 50 years, history of ethanol consumption, and history of prior chemotherapy. Factors predictive of radiation therapy-induced nausea and vomiting include site of irradiation (in particular, total body irradiation and radiation fields that include the abdomen), total field size, dose per fraction, age, and predisposition for emesis (history of sickness during pregnancy or motion sickness). Female gender, a history of motion sickness or prior postoperative nausea and vomiting, nonsmoking status, and use of postoperative opioids have been suggested as factors predictive of postoperative nausea and vomiting. The objective of this review was to evaluate the comparative effectiveness and harms of newer antiemetic drugs including the 5-HT3 and NK-1 antagonists.

Drug Class Reviews - Oregon Health & Science University.

Version: January 2009

Low back pain usually does not have a clearly identifiable cause, is not dangerous and goes away on its own. Only rarely is it caused by a serious problem such as a broken bone or infection. It is often possible to tell based on particular symptoms and warning signs. The following may be warning signs of a serious health problem. If you have low back pain together with one or more of these warning signs, you should have a doctor give you a careful examination: Pain that radiates into the legs and is accompanied by numbness, tingling or paralysis: This kind of radiating pain may be a sign of potential damage to nerves that leave the spinal cord at the base of the spine.Problems with urination or bowel movements: These symptoms, as well as numbness around the buttocks (perineum and anus), can be signs of potential damage to the nerves in the tailbone region. This is a medical emergency and requires immediate medical attention.Fever or chills: These symptoms may occur in connection with a spinal infection.Unexplained weight loss, physical weakness and pain that gets worse when you lie on your back: These symptoms may be a sign of a tumor. This may be a benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous) tumor around the spine, or metastases that have spread from malignant tumors elsewhere, for example breast or prostate cancer. It is also important to see a doctor if you have low back pain following an accident. These warning signs do not necessarily mean that you have a serious condition. That can only be confirmed after you have seen your doctor. Your overall health and other aspects like your age or risk factors for certain diseases such as osteoporosis also play a role.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: December 2, 2015

Invasive fungal infections are a significant problem for children whose immune system is not functioning properly. The majority of the children have cancer. Antifungal medications can be given when these children develop a fever (for example a fever occurring when the white cells or neutrophils are low during chemotherapy) or when an infection has been formally identified (as in candidaemia, candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis). The antifungal agents that were compared appear equally efficacious. Pooling the data from the few studies that were available suggest kidney damage was less likely with a lipid preparation of amphotericin B compared with conventional amphotericin B. It is reasonable to recommend a lipid preparation of amphotericin B, if cost permits. No significant differences have been observed in children when other antifungal agents have been compared. More studies in children evaluating available antifungal are required to further clarify any benefits with regard to the risk of dying, prospects of complete recovery and drug toxicities.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: February 17, 2010

This is an update of the Cochrane review "Rituximab for relapsing‐remitting multiple sclerosis" (first published in The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 12).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: December 6, 2013

We reviewed the effects of warming the body by transferring heat through the skin surface to prevent complications caused by unintended low body temperature (hypothermia) in adults undergoing surgery.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: April 21, 2016

In some groups of people, having the flu can sometimes lead to serious complications such as pneumonia. Drugs like oseltamivir (trade name: Tamiflu) aim to prevent things from turning serious. But research has only shown that taking oseltamivir might make general flu symptoms go away a bit sooner.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: November 3, 2016

When a wound swells up, turns red and hurts, it may be a sign of inflammation. Inflammation is an immune system response. This might be a reaction to bacteria growing in a wound or a splinter piercing your finger, for example. Inflammations develop when the immune system defends itself.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: January 7, 2015

Nephrostomy and biliary tubes are drainage catheters that are placed into the renal collecting system or biliary tree and assist in draining urine or bile, respectively. The most common indication for nephrostomy or biliary tubes is obstruction of the renal collecting system or biliary tree. Obstruction can occur for several reasons such as calculi, stones, malignancy, strictures or abscess. Other indications for nephrostomy tubes include access to the genitourinary system or diversion.

Rapid Response Report: Summary with Critical Appraisal - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: September 4, 2014

In most years healthy people are unlikely to get the flu (“influenza”), regardless of whether they have been vaccinated. Vaccination can reduce the risk of getting influenza by half or more, though. This can make a big difference in years when the risk of infection is high.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: November 3, 2016

When children have a fever, the cause is usually a harmless viral infection. They are only rarely seriously ill. It is good for parents to know which symptoms could be signs of a serious illness, though. Many parents of children who have a fever feel worried and ask themselves the following questions: Is it something serious? Should we go to the doctor? Does the fever need to be lowered? Parents are in the best position to judge whether their child is behaving abnormally – for instance reacting differently to them or to a toy. The child may be much less active, feel very unwell or stop drinking. Their judgment and experience are very important, and can also be of help to the doctor.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: November 17, 2016

Abuse of opioid drugs and dependence on them causes major health and social issues that include transmission of HIV and hepatitis C with injection, increased crime and costs for health care and law enforcement, family disruption and lost productivity. Addicts, particularly those aged 15 to 34 years, are also at higher risk of death. Managed withdrawal (or detoxification) is used as the first step in treatment. Withdrawal symptoms include anxiety, chills, muscle pain (myalgia) and weakness, tremor, lethargy and drowsiness, restlessness and irritability, nausea and vomiting and diarrhoea. Persisting sleep disturbances and drug craving can continue for weeks and months after detoxification and often lead to a return to opioid use. The number of addicts who complete detoxification tends to be low, and rates of relapse are high.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: February 28, 2013

Sneezing and a scratchy throat are often the very first signs you are getting a cold. Once your nose has become stuffy, you may feel weak and generally ill. Unlike influenza (flu), a cold is harmless, and effective relief is available for the symptoms.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: October 5, 2017

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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