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A term often used to describe arthritis in children.

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This summary presents what we know from research about the effect of exercise therapy in JIA. The review shows that in children with JIA, exercise may not lead to any difference in a child's ability to function or move their joints fully, the number of joints with swelling, quality of life, overall wellbeing, pain or aerobic capacity. Aerobic capacity is the amount of oxygen the body consumes during exercise. If a person has low aerobic capacity, it generally means he or she is able to do less physical activity and may tire easily.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: April 23, 2008

Etanercept, infliximab and adalimumab are licensed in the UK for the treatment of active and progressive psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in adults who have an inadequate response to standard treatment.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: February 2011

The objective of this systematic review is to examine the beneficial and harmful effects of IV tocilizumab in the treatment of active polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (pJIA).

Common Drug Review - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: August 2014

The study found that biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (with methotrexate where permitted) are superior to placebo in children with polyarticular course JIA who have had an insufficient response to previous treatment.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: April 2016

In active psoriatic arthritis, certolizumab and secukinumab had some incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of £20,000-30,000 per QALY, depending on psoriasis severity and the previous treatments used.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: October 2017

Study found that patients’ hip function and their general quality of life improved after having either total hip replacement (THR) or resurfacing arthroplasty (RS), with certain types of THR showing some benefit over others. More hip RSs had to be revised than THRs with costs for RS higher than those for THR.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: January 2015

The study found that people with different health conditions and in different seldom-heard groups valued the same eight core aspects of health care, even though their experiences of that care varied considerably. Several barriers were identified to using unpublished tailor-made analyses in National Institute of Health and Care Excellence clinical guidelines and quality standards; such analyses may have more potential when the qualitative literature is sparse, unclear or contradictory.

Health Services and Delivery Research - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: November 2014

Low bone mineral density (BMD) and fragility fractures are serious complications of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), but evidence from strategies for prevention and treatment has not been evaluated. The original aim of this project was to undertake a cost-effectiveness analysis of the lifetime fracture risk of children with JIA. We reviewed methods of assessing bone health in children with JIA, including quantitative imaging techniques, biochemical markers of bone turnover and fractures, to assess the available evidence and to assess the strengths and limitations of each method. We then undertook a systematic review of (1) the evidence for effectiveness of bisphosphonates and calcium and/or vitamin D in children with JIA and (2) the costs of treating children with JIA and low BMD and/or fragility fractures. During this study, it became clear that the data are not available for a health technology assessment of interventions to prevent and manageosteoporosis in JIA that complies with these criteria. Key omissions are: the lack of comparative effectiveness data, the limitations of outcomes in that they do not assess all health effects on individuals and measurement of quality-adjusted life-years has not been carried out, the lack of prospective resource use and cost data in the appropriate patient group. Therefore, to produce some evidence as useful background for future research in this area, we estimated the lifetime risk of low BMD and fractures from two cohorts of adults with JIA and conducted a cost analysis of the management of JIA for 1 year from diagnosis.

NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme: Executive Summaries - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: 2008

Children and adolescents with chronic pain often report their pain as hurting too much (intense) and happening too often (frequent). The pain can affect their ability to function physically and that can leave them feeling anxious or depressed. The most common types of chronic pain in children and adolescents are headaches and recurrent abdominal pain. A therapist, physically together with a patient or family (a method often called face‐to‐face) traditionally delivers psychological therapies, such as cognitive behavioural therapy or behavioural therapy. These therapies can include components such as relaxation techniques, coping strategies, and behavioural strategies, all of which have been found to benefit children by reducing pain and improving physical functioning. However, new technologies now allow therapy to be delivered without needing to be face‐to‐face with a therapist. Therapies delivered remotely promise to make treatments easier to access because they remove the need for travel. They may also be less expensive. By technology we mean the Internet, computer‐based programmes, smartphone applications, and the telephone.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: March 24, 2015

BACKGROUND: Methotrexate (MTX) is the cornerstone disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). In JIA, it is important to start effective treatment early to avoid long-term sequelae, such as joint damage. To accomplish this goal, it is crucial to know beforehand who is going to respond well to MTX. In addition, MTX adverse effects such as MTX intolerance occur frequently, potentially hindering its efficacy. To avoid inefficacy of an otherwise effective drug, the physician should be timely aware of these adverse events. Consequently, to optimise treatment of JIA patients with MTX, predictors for efficacy and adverse events should be used in daily clinical practice. The aim of this study was to summarise the existing knowledge about such predictors.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Very rare cancers in children include nasopharyngeal, thyroid, oral, salivary, laryngeal, breast, lung, esophageal, cardiac, adrenocortical, gastric, pancreatic, GIST, carcinoid tumors, colorectal, bladder, and skin cancer. Get information about the diagnosis and treatment of these unusual childhood cancers in this summary for clinicians.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: April 9, 2018

For purposes of this report, multifactorial dyslipidemia refers to dyslipidemias involving elevated total cholesterol (TC) or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) that are not familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). There is evidence that elevated TC and LDL-C concentrations in childhood, and especially adolescence, are associated with markers of atherosclerosis in young adults.

Evidence Syntheses - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: August 2016

Very rare cancers in children include nasopharyngeal, thyroid, oral, salivary, laryngeal, breast, lung, esophageal, cardiac, adrenocortical, gastric, pancreatic, GIST, carcinoid tumors, colorectal, bladder, and skin cancer. Get information about the diagnosis and treatment of these unusual childhood cancers in this expert-reviewed summary.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: April 20, 2018

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an inherited disorder of lipoprotein metabolism characterized by highly elevated total cholesterol (TC) concentrations early in life, independent of environmental influences. Around 1 in 200 to 1 in 500 persons in North America and Europe are estimated to have heterozygous FH. When untreated, FH is associated with a high incidence of premature clinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

Evidence Syntheses - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: August 2016

Hematopoietic cell transplantation involves the infusion of blood stem cells (peripheral/umbilical cord blood, bone marrow) into a patient to reconstitute the blood system. Get detailed information about autologous and allogeneic transplant, including cell selection, HLA matching, and preparative regimens, and the acute complications and late effects of treatment in this summary for clinicians.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: April 4, 2018

Cancer is an important condition, both in terms of the number of people affected and the impacts on those people and the people close to them. Around one third of a million new cancers are diagnosed annually in the UK, across over 200 different cancer types. Each of these cancer types has different presenting features, though there may be overlap. More than one third of the population will develop a cancer in their lifetime. Although there have been large advances in treatment and survival, with a half of cancer sufferers now living at least ten years after diagnosis, it remains the case that more than a quarter of all people alive now will die of cancer.

NICE Guideline - National Collaborating Centre for Cancer (UK).

Version: June 2015

OBJECTIVES: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is subdivided into seven categories. Even within these categories, the prognosis varies markedly. To start appropriate treatment in patients with JIA and to inform patients and their parents correctly, it is essential to know the individual prognosis, preferably at the time of diagnosis. The aim of this study was to identify variables that predict disease activity, joint damage, functional ability and quality of life (QoL) early in the disease course.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is the most common glomerular disease of childhood. Steroid-dependent and steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome present challenges in their pharmaceutical management; patients may need several immunosuppressive medication for optimum control, each of which medication has its own safety profile. Rituximab (RTX) is a monoclonal antibody that targets B cells and has been used successfully for management of lymphoma and rheumatoid arthritis. Recent clinical studies showed that rituximab may be an efficacious and safe alternative for the treatment of complicated nephrotic syndrome. In this review article, we aim to review the efficacy and safety of RTX therapy in nephrotic syndrome. We reviewed the literature pertaining to this topic by searching for relevant studies on PubMed and Medline using specific keywords. The initial search yielded 452 articles. These articles were then examined to ensure their relevance to the topic of research. We focused on multicenter randomized controlled trials with relatively large numbers of patients. A total of 29 articles were finally identified and will be summarized in this review. The majority of clinical studies of RTX in complicated pediatric NS showed that rituximab is effective in approximately 80% of patients with steroid-dependent NS, as it decreases the number of relapses and steroid dosage. However, RTX is less effective at achieving remission in steroid-resistant NS. RTX use was generally safe, and most side effects were transient and infusion-related. More randomized, double-blinded clinical studies are needed to assess the role of RTX in children with nephrotic syndrome.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

OBJECTIVE: To summarize the evidence regarding the effectiveness of switching to a second anti-TNFα treatment in children with autoimmune chronic uveitis (ACU), refractory to the first course of anti-TNFα treatment.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

OBJECTIVE: To summarize the evidence regarding the effectiveness of switching to a second anti-TNFα treatment in children with autoimmune chronic uveitis (ACU), refractory to the first course of anti-TNFα treatment.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

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