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Patients subjected to major surgery of the abdomen are at considerable risk of developing blood clots in the veins of the lower limbs. These clots may detach and develop clots in the lungs and cause sudden death. Clots in the limbs may impaire the venous function leading to a life‐long tendency to swollen legs and leg ulceration. In order to avoid these complications patients are often offered protective medicine during the first week after surgery, but patients are probably at risk of developing clots up to one month after surgery. This review suggests that prophylaxis should be administered for at least one month after surgery.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

We reviewed the evidence about the effects of unfractionated or low‐molecular weight heparin on induction of remission in patients with ulcerative colitis, with the medical literature up to June 17, 2014.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

BACKGROUND: Abdominal surgery carries a significant risk of venous thrombosis, a risk further increased in patients with cancer.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2004

This technology assessment reports the results of our review of the existing literature on commercially available genetic tests that are used to identify the tissue of origin (TOO) of the cancer in patients with cancer of unknown primary (CUP) site. CUP is a case of metastatic tumor for which the primary TOO remains unidentified after comprehensive clinical and pathologic evaluation. This review focused on analytical and clinical validity of the tests and their utility in guiding the diagnosis and treatment of CUP and improving health outcomes.

Technology Assessment Report - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: February 20, 2013

This review examined published reports of low molecular weight heparin-induced skin necrosis. The authors concluded that most patients have heparin-induced thrombocytopenia syndrome and most patients have a good outcome. The review methods were not reported and the conclusions did not adequately reflect the limited evidence from a small number of patients.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2005

This study found the use of the Aneurysm Repair Decision Aid (ARDA) provides detailed information on the potential consequences of abdominal aortic aneurysm repair or a decision not to repair that may be helpful to vascular surgeons and their patients in reaching informed decisions. The economic evaluation suggests that using the ARDA compared with current guidelines could be cost-effective but there is a high level of uncertainty.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: April 2015

The study found that it was not possible to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis for treating abdominal aortic aneurysms using fenestrated/branched endovascular repair versus conventional treatment (open repair surgery/no surgery) because of a lack of clinical effectiveness data. Future clinical trials are required to obtain the necessary data.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: December 2014

Study found surveillance intervals of several years are clinically acceptable for men with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) in the range 3.0–4.0 cm. Intervals of around 1 year are suitable for 4.0–4.9-cm AAAs, whereas intervals of 6 months would be acceptable for 5.0–5.4-cm AAAs. Lengthening surveillance intervals for the smallest aneurysms was also shown to be cost-effective

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: September 2013

To assess the benefits and harms of AAA screening programs and approaches to treating small aneurysms, and to determine screening yield for subgroup populations.

Evidence Syntheses - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: January 2014

Faecal immunochemical testing is likely to be clinically effective and cost-effective in primary care for triaging people presenting with lower abdominal symptoms, but who are at low risk for colorectal cancer.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: May 2017

When women go to their doctor with a mass that could be ovarian cancer, they are normally referred for surgery, since the mass may need to be removed and examined microscopically in a laboratory in a procedure known as paraffin section histopathology. A third of women with ovarian cancer present with a cyst or mass without any visible evidence of spread elsewhere. However, in these apparently early‐stage cancers (confined to the ovary) surgical staging is required to decide if chemotherapy is required. This staging consists of sampling tissues within the abdomen, including lymph nodes.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

This Rapid Response report reviews the accuracy and clinical impact of Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) for the identification of microbial pathogens. This report was reviewed by experts in clinical microbiology and bacteriology and mycology.

Rapid Response Report: Peer-Reviewed Summary with Critical Appraisal - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: October 16, 2015

Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength predisposing patients to an increased risk of fracture. In men, coexisting conditions and risk factors often combine with age-related, slowly proceeding bone loss to result in osteoporosis and fragility fractures. Osteoporotic fractures are a significant health care concern with devastating impacts on patients, often leading to an increased risk of subsequent fracture, hospitalization, decreased quality of life, premature mortality, and increased burden on the health care system. For men requiring treatment of osteoporosis, the Osteoporosis Canada 2010 guidelines recommend the oral bisphosphonates alendronate and risedronate, as well as the parenteral bisphosphonate zoledronic acid, as first-line treatment options.

Common Drug Review - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: October 2015

Malaria case management, which consists of prompt diagnosis and effective treatment, remains a vital component of malaria control and elimination strategies. This third edition of the WHO Guidelines for the treatment of malaria contains updated recommendations based on new evidence as well as a recommendation on the use of drugs to prevent malaria in high-risk groups.

World Health Organization.

Version: 2015

Following the publication of Guidelines on certification of elimination of human onchocerciasis in 2001 by the World Health Organization (WHO), these are the first evidence-based guidelines developed by NTD Department according to the international standards.

World Health Organization.

Version: 2016

To assess the long-term clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of multicomponent weight management schemes for adults in terms of weight loss and maintenance of weight loss.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: January 2011

Diabetes is a long-term condition that can have a major impact on the life of a child or young person, as well as their family or carers. In addition to insulin therapy, diabetes management should include education, support and access to psychological services, as detailed here and in this guideline. Preparations should also be made for the transition from paediatric to adult services, which have a somewhat different model of care and evidence base.

NICE Guideline - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: August 2015

This guideline covers identifying, diagnosing and assessing disease severity in adults, children and young people with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It also covers both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments, disease monitoring and the risk of extra-hepatic conditions associated with NAFLD.

NICE Guideline - National Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: July 2016

PURPOSE: Risk stratification of patients prior to surgery is important for reduction of postoperative morbidity and mortality. The frailty concept has been put forward as a good predictor of surgical outcomes. Sarcopenia (depletion of muscle mass) can be used to measure frailty. We aimed to systematically review the literature where core muscle size measurements have been used for risk assessment of patients undergoing major abdominal surgery.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

This review compared low-molecular-weight heparin and unfractionated heparin for prevention of death and adverse events caused by blood clots in cancer patients undergoing surgery. The authors found no evidence of a difference between the two treatments when administered before surgery. This was a generally well-conducted review and the conclusions were likely to be reliable.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2008

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Systematic Review Methods in PubMed

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