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The programme has shown the benefits of interdisciplinarity collaboration in dementia research from diagnosis through to end-of-life care and demonstrated the value of mixed methodologies in addressing complex problems.

Programme Grants for Applied Research - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: April 2015

The study found little evidence of benefit in providing self-management support to people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease shortly after discharge from hospital. There was a suggestion of some gains in health-related quality of life, but this finding was potentially subject to bias.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: May 2015

Both the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) and the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP ATP III) have issued recommendations on screening for dyslipidemia in adults. To guide the USPSTF in updating its 2001 recommendations, we reviewed evidence relevant to discrepancies between these recommendations.

Evidence Syntheses - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: June 2008

The Duke Evidence-based Practice Center (EPC) initiated a project designed to improve the process of generating reports that synthesize and evaluate the scientific literature on topics of particular interest to health care policymakers, clinicians, and other decisionmakers. The project focused on two improvement opportunities: process efficiency and stakeholder satisfaction. We organized the analysis around the concept of a “statement of work (SOW).” As a contractual document, the SOW is the tangible manifestation of the objectives of each EPC project, serving as a foundation for interaction between involved parties, including technical details such as budget, timeline, and deliverables.

Technical Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: January 2006

The increasing number of refugees, asylum seekers and irregular migrants poses a challenge for mental health services in Europe. This review found that these groups are exposed to risk factors for mental disorders before, during and after migration. The prevalence rates of psychotic, mood and substance use disorders in these groups are variable but overall are similar to those in the host populations; however, the rates of post-traumatic stress disorder in refugees and asylum seekers are higher. Poor socioeconomic conditions are associated with increased rates of depression five years after resettlement. These groups encounter barriers to accessing mental health care. Good practice for mental health care includes promoting social integration, developing outreach services, coordinating health care, providing information on entitlements and available services, and training professionals to work with these groups. These actions require resources and organizational flexibility.

Health Evidence Network Synthesis Report - WHO Regional Office for Europe.

Version: 2016

Narrative (storytelling) is an essential tool for reporting and illuminating the cultural contexts of health – that is, the practices and behaviour that groups of people share and which are defined by customs, language and geography. This report reviews the literature on narrative research, offers some quality criteria for appraising such research and gives three detailed worked case examples: diet and nutrition, well-being, and mental health in refugees and asylum seekers. Storytelling (and story interpretation) belongs to the humanistic disciplines and is not a pure science, although established techniques of social science can be applied to ensure rigour in sampling and data analysis. The case studies illustrate how narrative research can convey the individual experience of illness and well-being, thereby complementing (and sometimes challenging) epidemiological and public health evidence.

Health Evidence Network Synthesis Report - WHO Regional Office for Europe.

Version: 2016

Testing tumours for deficient DNA mismatch repair (dMMR) has been identified as a practice that is potentially over-utilized. According to clinical experts, dMMR tumour testing appears to be transitioning from an approach aimed at identifying patients and families with Lynch syndrome (LS) into a tumour phenotyping procedure that can be used to predict the prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) and to guide for adjuvant chemotherapy decisions. The use of a test with a prognostic and predictive value falls under the realm of “personalized medicine.” According to oncology and pathology experts, this recent application of dMMR tumour testing is the major driver of new test requisitions. This transition has led to an increased demand for the test, with unclear benefits for the patient or family members. In general, there is a lack of clarity regarding when the tests should be ordered and the impact of tumour dMMR status on CRC outcomes in the current era of oxaliplatin- and irinotecan-based chemotherapy. The central question, however, is whether universal dMMR tumour testing of CRC tumours is a viable and desirable option, given the known limitations of LS pre-selection criteria based on age, history, and pathology, and recognizing the potential utility of tumour dMMR status for personalizing cancer therapy. Missed cases of LS resulting from a targeted tumour dMMR testing strategy that is restricted to pre-selected high-risk individuals (e.g., selected based on the rBG) can be problematic and costly for the system, which would potentially support broader (universal) dMMR tumour testing of all CRC tumours. Alternatively, universal tumour testing carries with it additional costs associated with testing all CRC patients, most of whom will not have LS.

CADTH Optimal Use Report - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: August 2016

The study found that previous research on medication organization devices (MOD) was mostly of poor quality, and that the relationship between adherence to a MOD and health outcomes was unclear. Future work is needed to examine this relationship and whether MOD may cause medication-related adverse events.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: July 2016

The researchers developed an outcomes framework for forensic services for people with intellectual or developmental disabilities, that might be used in due course by service providers, commissioners and researchers.

Health Services and Delivery Research - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: January 2017

To examine the empirical evidence for associations between a set of proposed quality criteria and estimates of effect sizes in randomized controlled trials across a variety of clinical fields and to explore variables potentially influencing the association.

Methods Research Reports - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: June 2011

The Keeping Children Safe programme produced extensive new evidence on preventing falls, poisonings and thermal injuries in the under-fives, including that an injury prevention briefing did not increase the proportion of families with a fire escape plan, but did improve some secondary outcomes.

Programme Grants for Applied Research - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: July 2017

Study provides a comprehensive framework of information for three subpopulations of patients with non-small cell lung cancer that clinicians can refer to as they attempt to balance patient factors, available treatments, treatment costs and adverse events in their daily decision-making.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: July 2013

Dyslipidemias, disorders of lipid metabolism, are important risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). Identification of children with dyslipidemias could lead to interventions aimed at decreasing their risk of CHD as adults.

Evidence Syntheses - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: July 2007

Cerebrovascular disease is the third leading cause of death in the U.S. The proportion of all strokes attributable to previously asymptomatic carotid stenosis is low. In 1996, the United States Preventive Services Task Force concluded that there was insufficient evidence to recommend for or against screening of asymptomatic persons for CAS using physical exam or carotid ultrasound.

Evidence Syntheses - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: December 2007

Governments across the WHO European Region need to take urgent action to address the growing public health, inequality, economic and environmental challenges in order to achieve sustainable development (meeting current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs) and to ensure health and well-being for present and future generations. Based on a scoping review, this report concludes that current investment policies and practices (doing business as usual) are unsustainable, with high costs to individuals, families, communities, societies, the economy and the planet. Investment in public health policies that are based on values and evidence provides effective and efficient, inclusive and innovative solutions that can drive social, economic and environmental sustainability. Investing for health and well-being is a driver and an enabler of sustainable development, and vice versa, and it empowers people to achieve the highest attainable standard of health for all.


Version: 2017

Screening for cervical cancer has the potential to detect precancerous lesions and cancers in early stages, which can be effectively treated. Screening tests currently used in the United States on cervical cell samples include the Papanicolaou (Pap) test to detect cellular changes, as well as tests for high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes. A particular challenge is the management of women with test results of atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS) or of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) on cytology or those with a normal Pap test but a positive test for high-risk HPV genotypes, since only a fraction of these women will have a finding on colposcopically directed tissue biopsy that warrants treatment (e.g., high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN]). We aimed to examine the role of in situ hybridization (ISH) tests, including fluorescence ISH (FISH), to detect chromosomal abnormalities or DNA from high-risk oncogenic HPV genotypes on cervical cytologic specimens to increase the clinical validity of identification of precancerous lesions or cervical cancer.

Technology Assessment Report - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: February 16, 2013

The study found some beneficial effects of non-pharmacological interventions for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder used in school settings, but substantial heterogeneity in effect sizes was seen across studies. The qualitative reviews demonstrate the importance of the context in which interventions are used.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: June 2015

This review found evidence that organisational performance improves with better staff engagement, although this is not well defined or understood. Few studies relate to the health-care sector and more research is needed on what interventions work to improve staff engagement.

Health Services and Delivery Research - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: June 2015

This comparative effectiveness review evaluated the analytic validity, prognostic value, and comparative effectiveness of two types of medical tests (genetic testing for CYP2C19 variants and phenotypic testing to measure platelet reactivity) to identify patients who are most likely to benefit from clopidogrel-based antiplatelet therapy and to guide antiplatelet therapy in patient populations who are eligible to receive or are already receiving clopidogrel treatment.

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: September 2013

To assess the benefits and harms of AAA screening programs and approaches to treating small aneurysms, and to determine screening yield for subgroup populations.

Evidence Syntheses - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: January 2014

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