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Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2000 Oct 1;48(3):635-42.

Complications from radiotherapy dose escalation in prostate cancer: preliminary results of a randomized trial.

Author information

1
Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To compare early and late side effects in prostate cancer patients with Stage T1b-T3 disease randomized to receive 70 Gy or 78 Gy.

METHODS:

There were 189 patients randomized with a minimum follow-up of 2 years, that were available for this analysis. All patients were initially treated with a 4-field box to an isocenter dose of 46 Gy at 2 Gy per fraction. In the 70-Gy arm, treatment was continued to a reduced volume using a 4-field box technique. In the 78-Gy arm, treatment was continued to a reduced volume using a conformal 6-field arrangement. Side effects were graded on a 1-4 scale, adapted from Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and Late Effects Normal Tissue Task Force criteria.

RESULTS:

No significant differences in acute rectal or bladder toxicity were seen between the two treatment techniques (p > 0.6 for all comparisons). The 5-year Kaplan-Meier risks of Grade 2 or higher late bladder toxicity were 20% and 9% for 70-Gy and 78-Gy groups, respectively (log rank, p = 0.8). The 5-year risks of Grade 2 or higher late rectal toxicity were 14% and 21% for 70 Gy and 78 Gy, respectively (p = 0.4). Dose-volume histogram analysis of the 78-Gy patients showed a significant correlation between the percentage of rectum irradiated to 70 Gy or greater and the likelihood of developing late rectal complications. Patients with more than 25% of the rectum receiving 70 Gy or greater had a 5-year risk of Grade 2 or higher complications of 37% compared to 13% for patients with 25% or less (p = 0.05). All three Grade 3 complications occurred when greater than 30% of the rectum received 70 Gy or more.

CONCLUSION:

The overall rate of complications was similar in both treatment arms. However, there is evidence for a significant increase in late rectal complications when more than 25% of the rectum received 70 Gy or greater. This parameter may serve as a benchmark for the design of future three-dimensional conformal trials.

Comment in

PMID:
11020558
DOI:
10.1016/s0360-3016(00)00700-8
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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