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PLoS One. 2018 Sep 14;13(9):e0204157. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0204157. eCollection 2018.

Rapid detection of NDM, KPC and OXA-48 carbapenemases directly from positive blood cultures using a new multiplex immunochromatographic assay.

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Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
DZIF (German Centre for Infection Research), partner site Bonn-Cologne, Germany.
Department I for Internal Medicine, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.


Bloodstream infections caused by carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are associated with treatment failure and increased mortality. Detection of CPE from blood cultures (BC) by standard methods takes 16-72 hours, which can delay the initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy and compromise patient outcome. In the present study, we developed and evaluated a new method for the rapid detection of carbapenemases directly from positive BC using a new multiplex immunochromatographic test (ICT). The new ICT was assessed using 170 molecularly characterized Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates including 126 CPE (OXA-48-like (N = 79), KPC (N = 18) and NDM (N = 29)). After spiking with bacteria and incubation in a BC system, blood from positive BC bottles was hemolyzed, bacteria concentrated by centrifugation and lysed. The lysate was transferred to the RESIST-3 O.K.N. ICT (Coris BioConcept, Gembloux, Belgium), which detects OXA-48-like, KPC and NDM carbapenemases. The final results of the ICT were read when they became positive, at the latest after 15 min. All CPE isolates (126/126) were correctly detected with the new protocol (100% sensitivity, 100% specificity). There was perfect concordance between ICT results and molecular characterization. Total time to result was 20-45 min.


This proof-of-principle study demonstrates that with the newly developed method, OXA-48-like, KPC and NDM carbapenemases can be reliably detected directly from positive BC bottles. The new method is more rapid than other currently available assays and can be performed in any routine microbiology laboratory. This can help to rapidly identify patients with CPE BSI and optimize the management of patients with these difficult-to-treat infections. Further studies are needed to assess the performance of the ICT in routine diagnostics.

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