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J Clin Pharmacol. 1987 Dec;27(12):983-7.

Pharmacokinetics of codeine after single- and multiple-oral-dose administration to normal volunteers.

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1
Drug Evaluation Unit, Hennepin County Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN 55415.

Abstract

The pharmacokinetics of codeine, codeine glucuronide, morphine, and morphine glucuronide were assessed after single- (60 mg) and multiple-dose (60 mg every six hours for nine doses) oral administration of codeine sulfate to six normal volunteers. Multiple blood and urine samples were collected after administration of the single- and last multiple-oral doses. Drug concentrations were analyzed using radioimmunoassay techniques. No significant alterations in codeine pharmacokinetics were noted after multiple-dose oral administration. However, accumulation of morphine during multiple dosing was significant (AUC24 = 102 +/- 33 ng/mL/hr after single dose versus 212 +/- 118 ng/mL/hr after the last multiple dose). Peak concentration and AUC24 data for morphine glucuronide indicated that significant accumulation of this compound occurs upon multiple-dose administration. These data indicate that morphine and morphine glucuronide serum concentrations are significantly increased during chronic oral codeine therapy and suggest that morphine, and perhaps morphine glucuronide, contribute significantly to the analgesic activity of chronic oral codeine therapy.

PMID:
3437070
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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